Knowledge of “deep hole drilling”

Processing characteristics of deep hole drilling:

1. The tool holder is limited by the aperture, the diameter is small, and the length is large, resulting in poor rigidity and low strength. It is easy to produce vibration, ripples, and taper when cutting, which affects the straightness and surface roughness of the deep hole.

2. During drilling and reaming, the cooling lubricating fluid is difficult to enter into the cutting area without a special device, which reduces the durability of the tool and makes chip removal difficult.


3. During the processing of deep holes, the cutting condition of the tool cannot be directly observed. You can only rely on work experience to listen to the sound of cutting, look at the chips, touch the vibration and workpiece temperature by hand, and observe the instruments (oil pressure gauge and electric meter) to determine whether the cutting process is normal.

4. Chip removal is difficult. Reliable means must be used to break the chips and control the length and shape of the chips to facilitate smooth removal and prevent chip clogging.

5. In order to ensure the smooth progress of deep holes in the processing process and achieve the required processing quality, the inner (outer) chip removal device of the tool, the tool guide and support device, and the high-pressure cooling and lubrication device should be added.

Generally, a hole with a depth of more than 5 times the aperture is called a deep hole. Its difficulty lies in chip removal and cooling. Holes with a relatively small hole depth can be drilled with twist drills. In order to remove chips smoothly, the iron shavings must be straight out in thin strips and bring out smaller fragments. At the same time, the coolant is easy to enter.

The grinding method of the drill bit can use a relatively simple grinding method:

1. The angle between the drilling edges is increased to 130-140 degrees to increase the chip thickness and change the direction of chip discharge (the direction of chip discharge is perpendicular to the edge)

2. Sharpen the horizontal edge to reduce the axial cutting tool. At the same time, the cutting edge is close to the drill core to produce an angle that is conducive to chip separation.

4. Pour a 45-degree angle of 1 mm at the outer angle of the edge to reduce wear and improve the finish.

5. The speed of drilling is slightly lower, and the amount of feed should be larger, so that the chips are thickened and discharged in strips.

6. The nozzle of the coolant should be facing the hole inward to facilitate the coolant to enter the cutting area.

Common Problems and Solutions Edit

Rough surface of the hole

1.Chip bonding: reduce the cutting speed; avoid chipping; switch to cutting fluid with high extreme pressure and improve filtration; increase the pressure and flow of cutting fluid.

2.Poor coaxiality: adjust the coaxiality of the machine tool spindle and the drill sleeve; use a suitable drill sleeve diameter.

3.The cutting speed is too low, the feed is too large or uneven: use the appropriate cutting amount.

4.Inappropriate tool geometry: change the geometric angle of the cutting edge and the shape of the guide block

The orifice is flared

Poor coaxiality: adjust the coaxiality of the machine tool spindle, drill sleeve and support sleeve; adopt a suitable drill sleeve diameter and replace the worn drill sleeve in time.


The drill bit is broken

1.The chip breaking is not good, and the chips cannot be discharged: change the size of the chip breaking groove to avoid being too long or too shallow; find the chipping edge in time and replace it; increase the pressure and flow of the cutting fluid; use a workpiece with uniform material organization.

2.The feed is too large, too small or uneven: use the appropriate cutting amount.

3.Excessive wear and tear of the drill bit: Replace the drill bit regularly to avoid excessive wear and tear.

4.Inappropriate cutting fluid: choose the right cutting fluid and improve the filtration situation.

Low drill life

1.The cutting speed is too high or too low, and the feed is too large: use the appropriate cutting amount.

2.The drill bit is not suitable: replace the tool material; change the position and shape of the guide block.

3.Inappropriate cutting fluid: switch to a cutting fluid with high extreme pressure; increase the pressure and flow of the cutting fluid; improve the filtration of the cutting fluid.


The chips are banded: the geometry of the chip breaking groove is not suitable; the geometry of the cutting edge is not suitable; the feed volume is too small; the material organization of the workpiece is not uniform: change the geometry of the chip breaking groove and the cutting edge; increase the feed volume; use a workpiece with uniform material organization.

Chip is too small: the chip breaking groove is too short or too deep; the radius of the chip breaking groove is too small: the geometry of the chip breaking groove is changed.

Excessive chip cutting: the chip breaking groove is too long or too shallow; the radius of the chip breaking groove is too large: the geometry of the chip breaking groove is changed.

The advantages and disadvantages of the cam mechanism of the machine tool

The cam mechanism is an important driving and control mechanism used to realize mechanization and automation in machinery and equipment application engineering. It is widely used in working machinery operating in light industry, textiles, food, medicine, printing, standard parts manufacturing, transportation and other fields.Although the analytical design theory of cam mechanism has been discussed more in some books, it is slightly insufficient in engineering practice.Here we combine some conditions in teaching and practical application to introduce to readers a set of concise, clear and intuitive methods that do not require complex calculations, allowing most readers to quickly have a clear understanding of the tug and its practical application, without having to derive the cam contour curve equation, thereby improving the design efficiency and design accuracy.At the same time, it also involves the design of various conjugated cam mechanisms.
In order to meet the needs of high-speed cam mechanism analysis and design, dynamic analysis and dynamic design are incorporated. The general cam mechanism design is mainly to design the basic size and cam profile of the mechanism that can reproduce the movement law of a given follower, but the specific mechanical structure must be used in the project to ensure the realization of the design results.
For cam processing, a reasonable cutting plan and correct tool center trajectory coordinate data are the key to obtaining the cam profile that meets the design requirements. The cutting plan of each cam, the calculation method of the tool center trajectory coordinates and the tool center trajectory coordinates determine the control parameters during processing. Machining the cam profile on the profiling machine tool is the main way to improve the cam production efficiency and stabilize the processing quality, coupled with the design method of the square molding mechanism cooperative motor wheel, it is even more powerful.
The advantages and disadvantages of the cam mechanism in the application, let’s talk about the disadvantages first!Because the design process of the cam mechanism is time-consuming and labor-consuming, a simple timing action must be analyzed for a long time. Unlike electrical control, he can change his action flow and sequence at any time, so the control sequence must be confirmed before there is no design, and once the design is complete, it can no longer be changed casually, and the changes will affect the whole body.In addition, processing is also an important factor hindering the popularization of cam mechanisms.

Ordinary processing machine tools do not have the formulas for the derivation of various strange accelerations in the cam, and processing has become a difficult problem.Another is the cost of the cam. It is obvious that the cost of the machine with the cam mechanism is relatively high.
The advantages of the cam mechanism are also relatively obvious. One of his biggest advantages is that he does not need to control, it is just a mechanism. He also has his own control system. Another advantage is that the cam mechanism saves space and is easier to install. The third advantage is “fast”. One turn of the cam mechanism is a production cycle. In theory, as fast as the motor turns, it can run as fast as it can.

Machine tool noise control method

Machine tool noise is a common problem in the manufacturing industry and poses a potential threat to the health and safety of workers and operators.The following is an academic paper on how to solve the noise of machine tools.


Machine tool noise refers to the noise and vibration generated by the machine tool during processing.This kind of noise not only affects the hearing and mental health of workers, but also has a negative impact on the accuracy and production efficiency of machine tools.In this paper, the mechanism, transmission path and methods of noise reduction of machine tool noise are studied.

Research method:

This paper uses a combination of theoretical analysis and experimental research to conduct in-depth research on the mechanism, transmission path and noise reduction methods of machine tool noise.

Research results:

Mechanism of machine tool noise generation: The generation of machine tool noise is mainly caused by the vibration and friction of the machine tool.Vibration will cause relative movement between the parts of the machine tool, and friction will cause friction and impact between the parts of the machine tool, resulting in noise.

Transmission routes of machine tool noise: The transmission routes of machine tool noise include airborne transmission, solid transmission and liquid transmission.Among them, airborne transmission is the most important way of transmission, because the noise of machine tools is usually due to the air gap between the machine tool and the workbench.

Methods to reduce noise: Methods to reduce the noise of machine tools include the use of sound insulation technologies such as shock absorbers, hydraulic systems and pneumatic systems.The use of shock absorbers can effectively reduce the vibration and friction of the machine tool, while the hydraulic system and the pneumatic system can reduce noise by reducing the friction and impact between the machine tool components.


Machine tool noise is a serious problem in the manufacturing industry. The use of sound insulation technologies such as shock absorbers, hydraulic systems and pneumatic systems can effectively reduce machine tool noise.Therefore, manufacturers should take measures to reduce machine noise to protect the health and safety of workers and operators, and improve production efficiency.

12 categories and applications of commonly used machine tools

Seven categories and applications of commonly used machine tools

01 boring machine

The boring machine is suitable for plane milling and hole system processing of single-piece or small-batch parts in machining workshops. The end of the headstock is designed with a flat rotary disc radial tool holder, which can accurately boring larger holes and planes.In addition, drilling, reaming and threading can be carried out.

02 grinder

Machine tools that use abrasive materials (grinding wheels, abrasive belts, oilstones or research materials, etc.) as tools and cut the surface of the workpiece are collectively referred to as grinding machines. Grinding machines can add various surfaces, such as internal and external cylindrical and conical surfaces, planes, gear gallery surfaces, spiral surfaces and various forming surfaces, etc., Can also sharpen tools and cut off, etc., The process range is very wide.Since grinding is easy to obtain high machining accuracy and good surface quality, grinding machines are mainly used for finishing parts, especially hardened steel parts and high-hardness special materials.

03 lathe

Lathes are mainly used to process various rotary surfaces and end faces of rotary bodies.Such as turning cylindrical surfaces, conical surfaces, ring grooves and forming rotary surfaces in the inner and outer garden, turning end faces and various commonly used threads, and equipped with process equipment, various special-shaped surfaces can also be processed.It can also do drilling, reaming, reaming, knurling and other work on the lathe.

04 planer

The planer is mainly used to process various planes (such as horizontal planes, vertical planes and bevels, as well as various grooves, such as T-shaped grooves, dovetail grooves, V-shaped grooves, etc.) and linear forming surfaces.If equipped with a profiling device, spatial curved surfaces, such as steam turbine impellers, spiral grooves, etc., can also be processed.The tool structure of this type of machine tool is simple and does not cut on the return trip, so the productivity is low and it is generally used for small batch production of a single piece.

05 Milling machine

A widely used machine tool, which can process planes (horizontal planes, vertical planes), grooves (keyways, T-grooves, dovetail grooves, etc.), toothed parts (gears, spline shafts, sprockets, etc.), screw-shaped surfaces (spiral patterns, spiral grooves) and various curved surfaces on a milling machine. In addition, dry-to-rotary body surfaces can also be used, and the inner holes can be cut off.When the milling machine is working, the workpiece is mounted on the workbench or on accessories such as the indexing head. The rotation of the milling cutter is the main movement, supplemented by the feed movement of the workbench or milling head, the workpiece can obtain the required machining surface. Because it is multi-tool intermittent cutting, the productivity of the milling machine is higher.


06 drilling machine

A versatile machine tool with a wide range of uses, which can process parts such as drilling, reaming, reaming, countersinking and tapping threads.When the rocker drilling machine is equipped with process equipment, boring can also be carried out; the bench drill is equipped with a multi-function workbench (MDT-180 type), and the keyway can also be milled.

07 Gear processing machine tool

Gears are the most commonly used transmission parts. There are cylindrical gears with straight teeth, helical teeth and herringbone teeth, bevel gears with straight teeth and arc teeth, worm gears and non-circular gears.A machine tool that processes the surface of a gear’s teeth is called a gear processing machine.


08 Thread processing machine tool


09 Forging machine tool


10 Electric spark machine tool

11 combination machine tools


12 Composite machine tool

Three advantages of turning and milling composite machine tools

Turning and milling composite machine tool is an efficient and high-precision machine tool with many advantages, three of which are as follows:

Improve production efficiency

The turning and milling composite machine tool integrates the two functions of turning and milling, and can complete a variety of processing operations in one clamping, reducing the number of clamping and handling of workpieces, thereby improving production efficiency.In addition, the turning and milling composite machine tool is also equipped with an advanced CNC system, which can realize automated processing and further shorten the processing time.

Improve machining accuracy

The machining accuracy of turning and milling composite machine tools is very high, which can meet the machining needs of various high-precision parts.In the processing process, the turning and milling composite machine tool adopts advanced CNC technology, which can accurately control the trajectory and cutting parameters of the tool, so as to ensure the quality and accuracy of the machining surface.In addition, turning and milling composite machine tools also have stable machining performance, which can maintain high-precision machining for a long time.

Reduce production costs

Turning and milling composite machine tools can reduce the scrap rate in the processing process, because they can complete a variety of processing operations in one clamping, avoiding the accumulation of errors caused by multiple clamping.In addition, turning and milling composite machine tools also have a high processing efficiency and degree of automation, which can reduce labor costs and labor intensity, thereby reducing production costs.

In addition to the above three advantages, turning and milling composite machine tools have other advantages, such as:

Suitable for multi-variety, small batch production

Turning and milling composite machine tools can be adapted to multi-variety, small-batch production methods because they have a variety of processing functions and high flexibility.In production, different tools and processing strategies can be selected according to different parts requirements to achieve rapid production replacement and production adjustment.

Reduce footprint and space

Turning and milling composite machine tools integrate a variety of processing functions in one, which can reduce the number and footprint of traditional machine tools.At the same time, the turning and milling composite machine tool also adopts a compact design structure, which can maximize the use of space resources and reduce the waste of space.

Reduce energy consumption and environmental pollution

Turning and milling composite machine tools use advanced energy-saving technologies and environmentally friendly materials, which can reduce energy consumption and environmental pollution.In addition, the turning and milling composite machine tools are also equipped with environmental protection equipment such as wastewater recovery systems and environmental protection filtration devices, which can minimize the negative impact on the environment.

In short, turning and milling composite machine tools have many advantages, which can meet the requirements of modern manufacturing in terms of high efficiency, high precision, low cost, and environmental protection.In the future development of manufacturing, turning and milling composite machine tools will play an increasingly important role.

Application of laser welding in the automotive industry

The successful demonstration of the world’s first laser was more than 40 years ago. Today, laser science and technology are booming, and its role far exceeds the original expectations of people in the early days of its invention. The application of laser technology currently covers many fields of science and technology, economy, military and society.The automotive industry is an important application field of laser processing, accounting for 15% of the share of laser processing. Laser welding, laser cutting, laser marking, and laser punching are all widely used.
1.Technical feasibility of laser welding
The most basic characteristics of laser (stimulated radiated light) are: monochromatism, directivity, and correlation. These unique properties, coupled with the resulting ultra-high brightness, ultra-short pulses and other properties, make it tightly integrated with modern industry. These characteristics are very suitable for welding processing.Lasers are generally classified according to the different working substances that produce lasers. There are mainly semiconductor (GaAs, InP, etc.) lasers, solid (Nd:YAG, etc.) lasers, gas (CO2, He-Ne, etc.) lasers, liquid (tunable dyes, etc.) lasers, chemical lasers, free electron lasers, etc.Among them, gas lasers use gas or metal vapor as luminous particles. It is currently the most diverse type, the most diverse excitation method, the broadest laser wavelength distribution area, easy to achieve high-power continuous output, and the most widely used class of lasers.A solid-state laser dumps the particles that produce the laser into a solid matrix, and its concentration is larger than that of a gas, so it can obtain a relatively large laser energy output. It has the characteristics of high energy, high peak power, compact mechanism, and durability.Lasers of these two stimulated substances are mainly used in laser welding.
The application of laser welding technology in the manufacturing field has steadily increased, from pulse to continuous, from low-power to high-power, from thin plates to thick parts, from simple single seams to complex shapes, laser welding has gradually become a mature modern processing technology in the process of continuous evolution. Technology.Laser welding is divided into pulsed laser welding and continuous laser welding. In continuous welding, it can be divided into heat conduction welding and deep penetration welding.With the increase of laser output power, especially the emergence of high-power CO2 lasers, laser deep penetration technology has developed rapidly at home and abroad. The largest welding aspect ratio has reached 12:1. Laser welding materials have also developed from general low-carbon steel to today’s welding galvanized sheet, aluminum sheet, titanium sheet, copper sheet and ceramic materials. The laser welding speed has also reached tens of meters per minute. Laser welding technology is becoming more and more mature, and it is widely used in production lines, such as gear welding, high-speed welding of automobile floor plates and structural parts (including car doors and bodies) on automobile production lines, and has achieved great results. Economic and social benefits.
According to relevant statistics, in developed industrial countries in Europe and the United States, 50%-70% of auto parts are processed by laser.Among them, laser welding is mainly used and cutting is mainly used. Laser welding has become a standard process in the automotive industry.The laser is used for the welding of body panels to weld metal plates of different thicknesses and different surface coatings together, and then press them. The panel structure made in this way can achieve the most reasonable metal combination.The speed of laser welding is about 4.5m/min, and there is little deformation, eliminating the need for secondary processing.Laser welding accelerates the process of replacing forged parts with stamped parts.The use of laser welding can reduce the lap width and some reinforcing parts, and can also compress the volume of the body structure itself.This alone can reduce the weight of the body by 56kg.Laser welding is used for welding the roof shell and frame, and the welding of the transmission converter cover, which is controlled by CNC. The cycle time is about 16 seconds, and the actual welding time is only 3 seconds. It can run continuously for 24 hours a day.Used for welding the gearbox assembly and chassis of a small car, the laser beam has a fast welding speed, is easy to automate and control, and is easy to merge into a flexible manufacturing system. The laser beam improves the manufacturer’s product design and production cycle and reduces the scrap rate of finished products.
2.Application of laser welding in the automotive industry
The use of laser welding can bring huge economic benefits to the automobile manufacturing industry. For example, a large number of spot welding in body assembly, the two welding heads are sandwiched on the edge of the workpiece for welding, the flange width needs to be 16mm, while laser welding is unilateral welding, only 5mm is required. If the spot welding is laser welding, each car can save 40kg of steel.Traditional spot welding is used to weld two pieces of 0.8mm steel plate stamping parts, the average is 20 points/min, the welding distance is 25mm, that is, the speed is 0.5m/min, and the laser welding speed can reach more than 5m/min.The use of laser welding technology not only reduces costs, but also greatly improves production efficiency.
At present, a kilowatt laser processing robot system costs only a few hundred thousand dollars, and the safety and reliability of the new laser are also guaranteed. The failure and shutdown rate is only 2%, and the protective measures are extremely reliable.When laser welding, the contact surface of the workpiece needs to be closely matched, which is not easy to achieve in terms of technology, but the current advanced clamping method and flange design suitable for laser welding have solved this problem. The gradual maturity of laser welding technology has led major automobile manufacturers to apply laser welding to automobile production lines without exception.
The United States was the first to introduce high-power lasers into the automotive industry. There are more than 40 laser processing stations in the Detroit area, the center of the U.S. automotive industry, which are used for cutting automotive metal parts and welding gears, shortening the modification of automobiles from 5 years to 2 years.
The United States General Motors Company has adopted 22 laser processing production lines, and the United States Ford Motor Company uses Nd:YAG lasers combined with industrial robots to weld car bodies, which greatly reduces manufacturing costs. In 2000, 50% of the resistance spot welding production lines of the three major automobile companies in the United States were replaced by laser welding production lines.In Japan, the successful application of laser welding on production lines has attracted the attention of the world. For example, the new method of laser welding and stamping thin steel plates in the manufacture of automobile bodies has now been imitated by most automobile manufacturers in the world.Many famous automobile companies in the world have built special production lines for laser welding: Thyssen Steel’s car floor welding production line, Volkswagen’s gear laser processing production line, and Mercedes-Benz’s 18 factories. Laser processing equipment is installed in 8 of the 18 factories.
In the automotive industry, laser welding is mainly used in the welding of automobile bodies and the welding of splicing blanks.In order to meet the needs of the market and customers, it is necessary to improve the body and manufacturing technology, and the body value of the car accounts for about 1/5 of the total value of the car. The laser welding process is used to make the impact resistance and fatigue resistance of the body can be significantly improved, and the quality of the car can be improved.Due to the use of computer control, laser welding has strong flexibility and mobility. It can weld special-shaped door panels, baffles, gears, instrument panels and other parts, and can also complete the assembly of roof and side surrounds, engine racks and radiator racks. If you add optical fiber transmission systems and manipulators, you can realize automated automobile assembly production lines.Using ND:YAG continuous lasers transmitted by optical fibers of about 3KW, combined with the spot welding system and the fixture on the production line, the purpose of automated welding can be achieved. General Motors, Mercedes-Benz, etc. have adopted this system and applied it to the production lines of the latest models. The laser welding system can almost meet the requirements of perfect processing, and it has excellent performance in efficiency, economy, safety, strength, and corrosion resistance.
The body and chassis of a car are composed of more than 300 kinds of parts. Laser welding can weld almost all materials regardless of thickness, grade, type, and grade together to make parts of various shapes, greatly improving the flexibility of automobile design.Splicing blanks is to optimize the component design on the basis of fully analyzing the body structure, so that it can be welded from a few typical blanks, which greatly reduces the number of molds and increases the material utilization rate, and can be used in parts with different strength requirements. Blanks of different thicknesses can be stamped and formed at once, which reduces weight and improves accuracy. It also greatly improves corrosion resistance and safety performance, and the body structure is also greatly simplified.Toyota’s side circumference production line adopts splicing slab welding technology, which reduces the number of molds to four, and the material utilization rate reaches 65%. Together with other components, the cost of each car is reduced by more than 30 U.S. dollars, greatly increasing the benefits of automobile manufacturers.
3.Prospects of laser welding technology
Laser welding technology has had an impactful impact on the traditional automobile welding process. Major automobile companies have a very positive attitude towards this. The adoption of new technologies means stronger competitiveness, especially in the fiercely competitive automobile industry.Laser welding technology has the greatest future in welding aluminum materials, replacing castings with welded parts, and welding the whole body frame structure. Laser manufacturers should seize business opportunities and work hard on the mobility and volume of lasers to transmit lasers with optical fibers to make lasers more suitable for the needs of automotive production lines.Some domestic laser product manufacturers have gradually realized this. For example, the pulsed Nd:YAG laser welding machine produced by Hubei Guangtong Photoelectric System Co., Ltd. uses optical fiber coupling to focus, which is easy to use. The laser head can be far away from the welding area. The laser performance is stable and reliable, and the life is long. Traditional optical traditional systems can also be used. The laser can be used for laser welding, laser cutting and punching. One machine is multi-purpose, especially suitable for laser processing workshops and automated production lines.
In the 21st century, the automotive industry is entering a way that can carry out flexible modular production according to user requirements. Traditional processing techniques cannot meet the needs of new production methods. This provides an opportunity for the large-scale application of laser welding technology. Laser welding technology and other laser processing technologies will definitely have greater development in the automotive field and become an important processing method in the automotive industry.

Ultra-precision machining technology

At present, precision and ultra-precision machining accuracy ranges from micron to submicron, and even nano, and is widely used in automobiles, home appliances, IT electronic information high-tech fields, and military and civilian industries.At the same time, the development of precision and ultra-precision machining technology has also promoted the development of machinery, molds, hydraulics, electronics, semiconductor, optics, sensor and measurement technology, and metal processing industries.
Precision and ultra-precision machining-Concept and scope
Precision machining
Generally, according to the machining accuracy, machining can be divided into three stages: general machining, precision machining, and ultra-precision machining.At present, precision machining refers to processing technology with a machining accuracy of 1~0.1µm and a surface roughness of Ra0.1~0.01µm, but this boundary is constantly changing with the progress of processing technology. Today’s precision machining may be tomorrow’s general machining.
The problem to be solved by precision machining is the machining accuracy, including shape and position tolerance, dimensional accuracy and surface condition; the second is the processing efficiency. Some machining can achieve better machining accuracy, but it is difficult to achieve high processing efficiency.
Precision and ultra-precision machining-classification
1. Traditional precision machining methods include belt grinding, precision cutting, honing, precision grinding and polishing.
a.Abrasive belt grinding is the processing of workpieces with blended fabrics glued with abrasives as abrasive tools. It belongs to the category of grinding and processing of coated abrasives. It has the characteristics of high productivity, good surface quality, and wide range of uses.
b.Precision cutting, also known as diamond tool cutting (SPDT), uses high-precision machine tools and single crystal diamond tools for cutting and processing. It is mainly used for precision machining of soft metals such as copper and aluminum that are not suitable for grinding, such as magnetic drums for computers, magnetic disks, and metal mirrors for high-power lasers. The accuracy is 1~2 levels higher than that of general cutting.
c.Honing, a honing head composed of oilstone sand strips, reciprocates along the surface of the workpiece under a certain pressure, and the surface roughness after processing can reach Ra0.4~0.1µ;m, preferably up to Ra0.025µ;m, mainly used for processing cast iron and steel, not suitable for processing non-ferrous metals with low hardness and good toughness.
d.Precision grinding and polishing Through the abrasive and processing fluid between the workpiece and the tool, the workpiece and the grinding tool make mechanical friction with each other, so that the workpiece reaches the required size and accuracy of the processing method.Precision grinding and polishing can achieve accuracy and surface roughness that cannot be achieved by other processing methods for both metal and non-metal workpieces. The roughness of the ground surface Ra≤0.025µ;m The processing metamorphic layer is very small, the surface quality is high, and the precision grinding equipment is simple. It is mainly used for plane, cylindrical surface, gear tooth surface and seal parts with sealing requirements. It can also be used for the finishing of gauges, measuring blocks, fuel injectors, valve bodies and spool.
e.Polishing is a kind of microfabrication of the surface of a workpiece using mechanical, chemical, and electrochemical methods. It is mainly used to reduce the surface roughness of the workpiece. The commonly used methods are: manual or mechanical polishing, ultrasonic polishing, chemical polishing, electrochemical polishing and electrochemical mechanical composite processing.After manual or mechanical polishing, the surface roughness of the workpiece Ra≤0.05µ;m can be used for polishing planes, cylinders, curved surfaces and mold cavities.The machining accuracy of ultrasonic polishing is 0.01~0.02µ;m, and the surface roughness is Ra0.1µ;M.The surface roughness of chemical polishing is generally Ra≤0.2µ;M.Electrochemical polishing can be increased to Ra0.1~0.08µm.
2. Precision machining includes processing technologies such as microfabrication, ultra-microfabrication, and finishing. Microfabrication technology refers to the processing technology of manufacturing micro-size parts;
Ultra-microfabrication technology refers to the processing technology for manufacturing ultra-small size parts. They are proposed for the manufacturing requirements of integrated circuits. Due to the small size, its accuracy is expressed by the absolute value of the processed size, rather than by the ratio of the processed size to the size error.
Finishing generally refers to processing methods that reduce surface roughness and improve the mechanical properties of the surface layer. It does not focus on improving machining accuracy. Typical processing methods include honing, grinding, ultra-finishing and chip-free processing.In fact, these processing methods can not only improve the surface quality, but also improve the machining accuracy.Finishing is a new term proposed in recent years. It corresponds to finishing. It refers to a processing method that not only reduces the surface roughness and improves the mechanical properties of the surface layer, but also improves the machining accuracy (including size, shape, and position accuracy).
3. Ultra-precision machining is the process of micro-cutting materials on ultra-precision machine tools and equipment using the strictly constrained relative movement between parts and tools to obtain extremely high shape accuracy and surface finish.The current ultra-precision machining refers to the processing technology where the dimensional accuracy of the processed parts is higher than 0.1µm, the surface roughness Ra is less than 0.025µm, and the resolution and repeatability of the positioning accuracy of the machine tool used are higher than 0.01µm, also known as submicron-level processing technology, and it is developing towards nano-level processing technology.

Key technologies and application trends of industrial robots

The robot control system is the brain of the robot and is the main factor that determines the function and performance of the robot.The main task of industrial robot control technology is to control the movement position, attitude and trajectory of industrial robots in the working space, the sequence of operations and the time of actions.It has the characteristics of simple programming, software menu operation, friendly human-computer interaction interface, online operation prompts and easy to use.
Key technologies include:
(1) Open and modular control system architecture: using a distributed CPU computer structure, it is divided into robot controller (RC), motion controller (MC), photoelectric isolation I/O control board, sensor processing board and programming teaching box.The robot controller (RC) and the programming teaching box communicate through the serial port/CAN bus.The main computer of the robot controller (RC) completes the robot’s motion planning, interpolation and position servo, as well as the main control logic, digital I/O, sensor processing and other functions, while the programming teaching box completes the display of information and the input of buttons.
(2) Modular and hierarchical controller software system: The software system is built on the open source real-time multitasking operating system Linux, and adopts a hierarchical and modular structure design to realize the openness of the software system.The entire controller software system is divided into three levels: the hardware driver layer, the core layer, and the application layer.The three levels face different functional requirements and correspond to different levels of development. Each level of the system is composed of several modules with opposite functions. These functional modules cooperate with each other to realize the functions provided by this level.
(3) Robot fault diagnosis and safety maintenance technology: Through various information, the diagnosis of robot faults and corresponding maintenance are the key technologies to ensure the safety of robots.
(4) Networked robot controller technology: At present, the application engineering of robots has developed from a single robot workstation to a robot production line, and the networking technology of robot controllers has become more and more important.The controller has the networking functions of serial port, fieldbus and Ethernet.It can be used for communication between the robot controller and the robot controller and the positioner to facilitate the monitoring, diagnosis and management of the robot production line.
Mobile robot (AGV)
Mobile robot (AGV) is a type of industrial robot. It is controlled by a computer and has functions such as mobility, automatic navigation, multi-sensor control, and network interaction. It can be widely used in flexible handling and transmission functions in machinery, electronics, textiles, cigarettes, medical care, food, papermaking and other industries. It is also used in automated three-dimensional warehouses, flexible processing systems, and flexible assembly systems (AGV is used as an active assembly platform); at the same time, it can be used as a means of transportation in the sorting of items at stations, airports, and post offices.
One of the new trends in international logistics technology development, and mobile robots are the core technologies and equipment. They are high-tech and equipment that use modern logistics technology to cooperate, support, transform, and upgrade traditional production lines to achieve point-to-point automatic access to elevated box storage, operation, and handling, to achieve refinement, flexibility, and informationization, shorten logistics processes, reduce material losses, reduce floor space, and reduce construction investment.
Spot welding robot
The welding robot has the characteristics of stable performance, large working space, fast movement speed and strong load capacity. The welding quality is significantly better than manual welding, which greatly improves the productivity of spot welding operations.
Spot welding robots are mainly used for the welding of automobile vehicles, and the production process is completed by major automobile oems.Relying on long-term cooperative relations with major automobile companies, international industrial robot companies provide various types of spot welding robot unit products to major automobile manufacturers and enter China in the form of welding robots and vehicle production lines, occupying a dominant market position in this field.
With the development of the automotive industry, welding production lines require the integration of welding pliers and the weight is getting bigger and bigger. The 165 kg spot welding robot is currently the most commonly used robot in automotive welding.In September 2008, the Robotics Research Institute developed the first 165 kg spot welding robot in China, and it was successfully applied to the Chery automobile welding workshop.In September 2009, the second robot with optimized and improved performance was completed and successfully passed the acceptance. The overall technical indicators of the robot have reached the level of similar foreign robots.
Arc welding robot
Arc welding robots are mainly used in the welding production of various auto parts.In this field, large international industrial robot manufacturers mainly provide unit products to complete equipment suppliers.The company is mainly engaged in the production of complete sets of arc welding robot equipment. According to the different needs of various projects, it produces its own robot unit products in complete sets of equipment, and can also purchase and form complete sets of arc welding robots from large industrial robot companies. Equipment.In this field, the company has both competition and cooperative relations with large international industrial robot manufacturers.
Key technologies include:
(1) Arc welding robot system optimization and integration technology: The arc welding robot adopts AC servo drive technology and high-precision, high-rigidity RV reducer and harmonic reducer, which has good low-speed stability and high-speed dynamic response, and can realize maintenance-free functions.
(2) Coordinated control technology: controlling the coordinated movement of multiple robots and positioners can not only maintain the relative posture of the welding torch and the workpiece to meet the requirements of the welding process, but also avoid the collision between the welding torch and the workpiece.
(3) Precise weld trajectory tracking technology: combining the advantages of offline working methods of laser sensors and vision sensors, laser sensors are used to track welds during welding, and the flexibility and adaptability of welding robots to weld complex workpieces are improved. Combined with offline observation of vision sensors, the residual deviation of weld tracking is obtained, and compensation data is obtained based on deviation statistics and the robot’s trajectory is corrected, so that the best welding quality can be obtained under various working conditions.
Laser processing robot
Laser processing robots apply robotics to laser processing, and realize more flexible laser processing operations through high-precision industrial robots.The system is operated online through the teaching box, and can also be programmed offline.Through the automatic detection of the processed workpiece, the system generates a model of the processed part, and then generates a processing curve, which can also be directly processed using CAD data.It can be used for laser surface treatment, punching, welding and mold repair of workpieces.
Key technologies include:
(1) Laser processing robot structure optimization design technology: the use of a wide range of frame-type body structure, while increasing the operating range, to ensure the accuracy of the robot;
(2) Error compensation technology of robot system: In view of the large working space and high accuracy requirements of integrated processing robots, and combined with their structural characteristics, a hybrid robot compensation method combining non-model methods and model-based methods is adopted to complete the compensation of geometric parameter errors and non-geometric parameter errors.
(3) High-precision robot detection technology: The combination of three-coordinate measurement technology and robotics technology realizes high-precision online measurement of robots.
(4) Special language implementation technology for laser processing robots: According to the characteristics of laser processing and robot operations, complete the special language for laser processing robots.
(5) Network communication and offline programming technology: it has network communication functions such as serial port and CAN to realize the monitoring and management of the robot production line; and to realize the offline programming and control of the robot by the host computer.
Vacuum robot
A vacuum robot is a kind of robot that works in a vacuum environment. It is mainly used in the semiconductor industry to realize the transmission of wafers in a vacuum chamber.Vacuum manipulators are difficult to import, restricted, large in quantity, and strong in versatility. They have become a key component that restricts the research and development progress of semiconductor equipment and the competitiveness of the whole machine’s products.Moreover, foreign countries have strictly censored Chinese buyers and belong to the embargoed product catalog. Vacuum manipulators have become a “stuck neck” problem that seriously restricts the manufacturing of semiconductor equipment in our country.Direct drive vacuum robot technology belongs to the original innovative technology.
Key technologies include:
(1) New configuration design technology of vacuum robot: Through structural analysis and optimization design, avoiding international patents, the new configuration is designed to meet the requirements of the vacuum robot for stiffness and expansion ratio.;
(2) Large-gap vacuum direct drive motor technology: it involves large-gap vacuum direct drive motor and high-clean direct drive motor to carry out motor theoretical analysis, structural design, production technology, motor material surface treatment, low-speed and high-torque control, small multi-axis drive and other aspects.
(3) The design of a multi-axis precision shaft system in a vacuum environment.The design method of the axis in the axis is adopted to reduce the dissociation between the axes and the asymmetry of inertia.
(4) Dynamic trajectory correction technology: Through the fusion of sensor information and robot motion information, the offset between the reference position of the wafer and the finger is detected, and the motion trajectory is dynamically corrected to ensure that the robot accurately transmits the wafer from one station in the vacuum chamber to another station.
(5) The language of the vacuum robot that meets the SEMI standard: According to the handling requirements of the vacuum robot, the operating characteristics of the robot and the SEMI standard, complete the special language of the vacuum robot.
(6) Reliability system engineering technology: In IC manufacturing, equipment failure will bring huge losses.According to the high requirements of semiconductor equipment for MCBF, the reliability of each component is tested, evaluated and controlled to improve the reliability of each component of the manipulator, so as to ensure that the manipulator meets the high requirements of IC manufacturing.
Clean robot
A clean robot is an industrial robot used in a clean environment.With the continuous improvement of the level of production technology, its requirements for the production environment are also becoming more and more demanding. The production of many modern industrial products requires a clean environment. Clean robots are the key equipment needed for production in a clean environment.
Key technologies include:
(1) Clean lubrication technology: through the use of negative pressure dust suppression structure and non-volatile grease, no particle pollution to the environment is achieved and the cleanliness requirements are met.
(2) High-speed and stable control technology: through trajectory optimization and improvement of joint servo performance, the smoothness of clean handling is realized.
(3) Miniaturization technology of the controller: According to the high construction and operating costs of the clean room, the space occupied by the clean robot is reduced through the miniaturization technology of the controller.
(4) Wafer detection technology: Through optical sensors, it is possible to obtain information such as whether the wafers in the cassette are missing or tilted through the scanning of the robot.

Analysis of motion control methods of industrial robots

Robot control systems used in industry generally adopt a secondary control method, in which the industrial computer acts as the main controller for the coordination and scheduling of the entire control process, and the second-level controller is used for the motion control of the spraying robot.
The control mode of the industrial control computer plus DSP, the industrial control computer acts as a first-level controller, responsible for system management, robot language compilation and human-computer interface and other functions.The DSP acts as a secondary controller and is mainly responsible for the motion control of the robot, including functions such as the positive and inverse solution operation of the robot’s motion, the interpolation operation, and the position control of the joints.The industrial computer and the DSP do not communicate directly. They exchange data through a common memory. Both the industrial computer and the DSP can read data from the memory to achieve the purpose of communication.
At present, the more common mode is the industrial computer plus the motion control card. The motion control card is about to be inserted into the PCI slot of the industrial computer, and the communication between the industrial computer and the motion control card is carried out through the PCI bus.
The industrial computer is responsible for the file management of the system, the setting of system parameters, the interpretation of the robot language, the teaching inspection, the coordination and scheduling of system programs, fault diagnosis, the positive and negative solution of robot kinematics and the interpolation operation and other functions.The motion control card is only responsible for the motion control function of the robot, which enhances the real-time movement of the robot.
The man-machine interface function is completed by a dedicated I/O card inserted on the industrial control computer. The I/O card feeds back information such as equipment operating status and stroke limit switch to the industrial control computer in real time in the form of a switch, and the industrial control computer responds accordingly based on the information read.The teaching box communicates with the host through the RS232 bus.The hardware structure of the control system usually includes industrial control computers, motion control cards, I/O cards, teaching boxes, servo motors and other components.

Changes brought about by the application of robot collaboration

As prices become cheaper and more powerful, robots have been widely used in all aspects of automobile manufacturing, and robots have the ability to complete more difficult tasks.Not only that, robots can also collaborate with each other, which makes it possible to undertake complex tasks that previously had to be done by hand or specially designed auxiliary tools.
Although welding is still the main application field of robots in the current automotive industry, various automobile companies are using the rapid development of computer technology to continuously expand the scope of application of robots.On the one hand, the decline in costs has enabled automobile companies to use more robots in production; on the other hand, increasingly powerful computing functions have enabled robots to perform particularly complex tasks that even programming equipment could not complete before.These changes will undoubtedly help improve the quality of automobile manufacturing and control costs.
Collaborative application of robots
Today, the increasingly powerful control functions of automation products, coupled with the simplification of programming technology, make it much simpler to connect robots than in the past.The collaborative application of robots has changed the way of automobile manufacturing, and it is another obvious sign of the technological development of automobile manufacturing.Now, the robot can complete a certain work on a certain part and then transfer it to the next robot.
With the development of automation technology, it has become very simple to control more than one manipulator with only one controller.This makes it possible to use robots in many fields to replace previously necessary special tools or labor.The more manipulators and motion axes that the controller can manipulate, the less chance the manipulators will collide with each other or other problems will occur.For example, ABB’s latest IRC5 controller, through the new MultiMove function, can control up to 4 robots and a total of 36 axes by a single controller, which can easily achieve complex coordinated operation.
During operation, one robot picks up a part and holds it for another robot to complete a given task.For more complex tasks, two or more robots hold these parts together. At the same time, other robots perform the task of tightening bolts or welding them together… In short, with the mutual cooperation of robots, the precise location of the parts can be easily determined and the scheduled work tasks can be completed efficiently.
Cancel the fixture system
Allowing several robots to complete a task together, this collaborative ability provides automobile manufacturers with huge application space.In the past, parts had to be precisely positioned-clamps were used to clamp the parts to the exact position required by the robot.Manufacturing these fixtures is a time-consuming and laborious high-standard and demanding work, because these fixtures must not only ensure the accuracy of the action, but also if the parts held are heavy or large parts, they must also ensure that the parts are motionless during welding, painting or other operations.And if it is done by a robot, it is much simpler to control.
Under the influence of the dual factors of falling prices and increased computing power, the opportunity for machine vision systems to be used in the field of automobile manufacturing has greatly increased, and the use of this system also helps to eliminate the fixture system, because the vision system can easily determine the precise location of the parts should be placed, and it can also save a lot of money for manufacturing and debugging those complex fixture systems.
The manufacturing after eliminating the time-consuming fixture system just caters to the development trend of “just-in-time” and “lean production” in the automotive manufacturing industry.Automobile manufacturers are working hard to make themselves respond quickly to the market while maintaining high manufacturing reliability, and robots just meet the manufacturing needs of automobile manufacturers.
Due to the shortening of the product life cycle, manufacturers must have a flexible and agile response mechanism-this is the main reason why they are increasingly using programmable equipment instead of a single fixture.This method makes it easier to convert products on the production line, so that the factory can plan the output of each model according to the latest sales trends, and even set the smallest batch to 1 car.
Dedicated robot
The emergence of some dedicated robots that can be used to complete specific tasks has provided more advanced tools for automobile manufacturing.For example, in the welding field where robots are most widely used, developers have proposed new methods of welding based on the technical characteristics of special robots, and designed some robots specifically for arc welding or spot welding. These special robots are different from general-purpose robots, which can more accurately ensure the quality of welding.
A feature of the new type of special robot is that its cables are integrated into the manipulator.Compared with external cables, the built-in cables are less likely to be worn and aging, which can reduce long-term costs. This is also the reason why robots are more widely adopted, because today’s automakers tend to pay more attention to product life cycle costs, not just initial cost investment.Eliminating the external cable can also make the robot work closer, because the chance of the manipulator entangling the cable suspended by another manipulator is greatly reduced.
Program control ability is the key
Changing the actions of the robots so that they can be applied to the production of another new model, or can be transitioned from an independent working state to a collaborative working state, which requires reprogramming.A few years ago, compiling a set of robot action programs was a very complicated task, because most robots used a dedicated programming language at that time. Programmers must understand both computer programming language and processing technology, and such talents are really lacking. Therefore, the key problem that needs to be solved is how to make the robot run easier and easier to reprogram when work requirements change.Now, this problem is being solved by different methods, and some successful experiences have been achieved.For example, General Motors, they no longer need computer experts to program, because many of their work has been stylized, and the programming steps have a fixed pattern, making programming very easy.
Some companies have even begun to adopt World Wide Web to simplify the setup of robots.FANUC Robotics introduced Internet technology into the manufacturing platform, and they have a browser on the robot controller.When the robot is connected to the network, the operator can look for diagnostic information on the Web page, check time data, or use e-mail to contact the technician.
Another way to simplify programming is to provide an interface that hides the professional language, so that more operators and technicians in the professional field can program the system.
Nowadays, PLCs are still widely used in many factories, but under normal circumstances, PLCs hardly have the programming capabilities required for complex robots.In order to make up for this shortcoming of PLC, some robot manufacturers are conducting further research and development on PLC. For example, Adept Technology has cooperated with Rockwell to develop robots that are completely driven by PLC, thus creating some new areas of application in automobile manufacturing.Lower-cost PLC programmable robots provide manufacturing engineers with more opportunities to change procedures and operations.
Another revolutionary change in robot control procedures is the increasing use of servo motors, which provides a technical guarantee for robots to complete difficult precision machining.For example, in the coating process, the process requires that the synthetic paint of the two components must be mixed very accurately.Using servo technology, robot manufacturers can more accurately control the operation of the coating robot mixing pump.
Where robots will come in the future
Although the automobile manufacturing industry is highly developed today, automobile assembly still contains a large number of tasks that must be done manually, because at present these tasks cannot be simply depicted with black and white barcodes in computer programming languages.For example, assembling a transmission usually requires blind matching, which is to connect the spindle to the cogging to achieve the purpose of meshing.The operator generally performs trial installation by touching, and keeps swinging the parts until they “feel” good.Obviously, such an operation is accompanied by more human factors, and the accuracy of assembly cannot be guaranteed. Therefore, automobile companies are eager to adopt automated procedures to eliminate the interference of human factors on the assembly line and improve assembly quality-this is where robots will come in the future.
The miniature camera installed on the robot can enter areas invisible to the human eye, and provide the robot with image information in advance to help the robot decide which method to use to move parts, and finally obtain satisfactory assembly results. This is the robot of the future. With the assistance of various advanced technologies, they will use their increasingly powerful functions to play a much larger role in the high-precision assembly world than today.


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