Key technologies and application trends of industrial robots

The robot control system is the brain of the robot and is the main factor that determines the function and performance of the robot.The main task of industrial robot control technology is to control the movement position, attitude and trajectory of industrial robots in the working space, the sequence of operations and the time of actions.It has the characteristics of simple programming, software menu operation, friendly human-computer interaction interface, online operation prompts and easy to use.
Key technologies include:
(1) Open and modular control system architecture: using a distributed CPU computer structure, it is divided into robot controller (RC), motion controller (MC), photoelectric isolation I/O control board, sensor processing board and programming teaching box.The robot controller (RC) and the programming teaching box communicate through the serial port/CAN bus.The main computer of the robot controller (RC) completes the robot’s motion planning, interpolation and position servo, as well as the main control logic, digital I/O, sensor processing and other functions, while the programming teaching box completes the display of information and the input of buttons.
(2) Modular and hierarchical controller software system: The software system is built on the open source real-time multitasking operating system Linux, and adopts a hierarchical and modular structure design to realize the openness of the software system.The entire controller software system is divided into three levels: the hardware driver layer, the core layer, and the application layer.The three levels face different functional requirements and correspond to different levels of development. Each level of the system is composed of several modules with opposite functions. These functional modules cooperate with each other to realize the functions provided by this level.
(3) Robot fault diagnosis and safety maintenance technology: Through various information, the diagnosis of robot faults and corresponding maintenance are the key technologies to ensure the safety of robots.
(4) Networked robot controller technology: At present, the application engineering of robots has developed from a single robot workstation to a robot production line, and the networking technology of robot controllers has become more and more important.The controller has the networking functions of serial port, fieldbus and Ethernet.It can be used for communication between the robot controller and the robot controller and the positioner to facilitate the monitoring, diagnosis and management of the robot production line.
Mobile robot (AGV)
Mobile robot (AGV) is a type of industrial robot. It is controlled by a computer and has functions such as mobility, automatic navigation, multi-sensor control, and network interaction. It can be widely used in flexible handling and transmission functions in machinery, electronics, textiles, cigarettes, medical care, food, papermaking and other industries. It is also used in automated three-dimensional warehouses, flexible processing systems, and flexible assembly systems (AGV is used as an active assembly platform); at the same time, it can be used as a means of transportation in the sorting of items at stations, airports, and post offices.
One of the new trends in international logistics technology development, and mobile robots are the core technologies and equipment. They are high-tech and equipment that use modern logistics technology to cooperate, support, transform, and upgrade traditional production lines to achieve point-to-point automatic access to elevated box storage, operation, and handling, to achieve refinement, flexibility, and informationization, shorten logistics processes, reduce material losses, reduce floor space, and reduce construction investment.
Spot welding robot
The welding robot has the characteristics of stable performance, large working space, fast movement speed and strong load capacity. The welding quality is significantly better than manual welding, which greatly improves the productivity of spot welding operations.
Spot welding robots are mainly used for the welding of automobile vehicles, and the production process is completed by major automobile oems.Relying on long-term cooperative relations with major automobile companies, international industrial robot companies provide various types of spot welding robot unit products to major automobile manufacturers and enter China in the form of welding robots and vehicle production lines, occupying a dominant market position in this field.
With the development of the automotive industry, welding production lines require the integration of welding pliers and the weight is getting bigger and bigger. The 165 kg spot welding robot is currently the most commonly used robot in automotive welding.In September 2008, the Robotics Research Institute developed the first 165 kg spot welding robot in China, and it was successfully applied to the Chery automobile welding workshop.In September 2009, the second robot with optimized and improved performance was completed and successfully passed the acceptance. The overall technical indicators of the robot have reached the level of similar foreign robots.
Arc welding robot
Arc welding robots are mainly used in the welding production of various auto parts.In this field, large international industrial robot manufacturers mainly provide unit products to complete equipment suppliers.The company is mainly engaged in the production of complete sets of arc welding robot equipment. According to the different needs of various projects, it produces its own robot unit products in complete sets of equipment, and can also purchase and form complete sets of arc welding robots from large industrial robot companies. Equipment.In this field, the company has both competition and cooperative relations with large international industrial robot manufacturers.
Key technologies include:
(1) Arc welding robot system optimization and integration technology: The arc welding robot adopts AC servo drive technology and high-precision, high-rigidity RV reducer and harmonic reducer, which has good low-speed stability and high-speed dynamic response, and can realize maintenance-free functions.
(2) Coordinated control technology: controlling the coordinated movement of multiple robots and positioners can not only maintain the relative posture of the welding torch and the workpiece to meet the requirements of the welding process, but also avoid the collision between the welding torch and the workpiece.
(3) Precise weld trajectory tracking technology: combining the advantages of offline working methods of laser sensors and vision sensors, laser sensors are used to track welds during welding, and the flexibility and adaptability of welding robots to weld complex workpieces are improved. Combined with offline observation of vision sensors, the residual deviation of weld tracking is obtained, and compensation data is obtained based on deviation statistics and the robot’s trajectory is corrected, so that the best welding quality can be obtained under various working conditions.
Laser processing robot
Laser processing robots apply robotics to laser processing, and realize more flexible laser processing operations through high-precision industrial robots.The system is operated online through the teaching box, and can also be programmed offline.Through the automatic detection of the processed workpiece, the system generates a model of the processed part, and then generates a processing curve, which can also be directly processed using CAD data.It can be used for laser surface treatment, punching, welding and mold repair of workpieces.
Key technologies include:
(1) Laser processing robot structure optimization design technology: the use of a wide range of frame-type body structure, while increasing the operating range, to ensure the accuracy of the robot;
(2) Error compensation technology of robot system: In view of the large working space and high accuracy requirements of integrated processing robots, and combined with their structural characteristics, a hybrid robot compensation method combining non-model methods and model-based methods is adopted to complete the compensation of geometric parameter errors and non-geometric parameter errors.
(3) High-precision robot detection technology: The combination of three-coordinate measurement technology and robotics technology realizes high-precision online measurement of robots.
(4) Special language implementation technology for laser processing robots: According to the characteristics of laser processing and robot operations, complete the special language for laser processing robots.
(5) Network communication and offline programming technology: it has network communication functions such as serial port and CAN to realize the monitoring and management of the robot production line; and to realize the offline programming and control of the robot by the host computer.
Vacuum robot
A vacuum robot is a kind of robot that works in a vacuum environment. It is mainly used in the semiconductor industry to realize the transmission of wafers in a vacuum chamber.Vacuum manipulators are difficult to import, restricted, large in quantity, and strong in versatility. They have become a key component that restricts the research and development progress of semiconductor equipment and the competitiveness of the whole machine’s products.Moreover, foreign countries have strictly censored Chinese buyers and belong to the embargoed product catalog. Vacuum manipulators have become a “stuck neck” problem that seriously restricts the manufacturing of semiconductor equipment in our country.Direct drive vacuum robot technology belongs to the original innovative technology.
Key technologies include:
(1) New configuration design technology of vacuum robot: Through structural analysis and optimization design, avoiding international patents, the new configuration is designed to meet the requirements of the vacuum robot for stiffness and expansion ratio.;
(2) Large-gap vacuum direct drive motor technology: it involves large-gap vacuum direct drive motor and high-clean direct drive motor to carry out motor theoretical analysis, structural design, production technology, motor material surface treatment, low-speed and high-torque control, small multi-axis drive and other aspects.
(3) The design of a multi-axis precision shaft system in a vacuum environment.The design method of the axis in the axis is adopted to reduce the dissociation between the axes and the asymmetry of inertia.
(4) Dynamic trajectory correction technology: Through the fusion of sensor information and robot motion information, the offset between the reference position of the wafer and the finger is detected, and the motion trajectory is dynamically corrected to ensure that the robot accurately transmits the wafer from one station in the vacuum chamber to another station.
(5) The language of the vacuum robot that meets the SEMI standard: According to the handling requirements of the vacuum robot, the operating characteristics of the robot and the SEMI standard, complete the special language of the vacuum robot.
(6) Reliability system engineering technology: In IC manufacturing, equipment failure will bring huge losses.According to the high requirements of semiconductor equipment for MCBF, the reliability of each component is tested, evaluated and controlled to improve the reliability of each component of the manipulator, so as to ensure that the manipulator meets the high requirements of IC manufacturing.
Clean robot
A clean robot is an industrial robot used in a clean environment.With the continuous improvement of the level of production technology, its requirements for the production environment are also becoming more and more demanding. The production of many modern industrial products requires a clean environment. Clean robots are the key equipment needed for production in a clean environment.
Key technologies include:
(1) Clean lubrication technology: through the use of negative pressure dust suppression structure and non-volatile grease, no particle pollution to the environment is achieved and the cleanliness requirements are met.
(2) High-speed and stable control technology: through trajectory optimization and improvement of joint servo performance, the smoothness of clean handling is realized.
(3) Miniaturization technology of the controller: According to the high construction and operating costs of the clean room, the space occupied by the clean robot is reduced through the miniaturization technology of the controller.
(4) Wafer detection technology: Through optical sensors, it is possible to obtain information such as whether the wafers in the cassette are missing or tilted through the scanning of the robot.

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