Five-axis CNC programming technology for aspheric lenses based on UG/NX

Based on the characteristics of the aspheric lens surface, the lens processing technology was formulated, and the processing trajectory of the base mold and lens was planned based on UGNX3.0. Among them, cavity milling is used to plan the rough machining trajectory of the wooden bottom mold, fixed contour milling is used to plan the finishing trajectory of the wooden bottom mold, and the swarf method is used to plan the rough and finishing trajectories of the lens.

1. Lens processing five-coordinate CNC machining center

Generally speaking, a five-coordinate CNC machining center consists of three translation axes and two rotation axes. According to different motion axis configurations, five-coordinate CNC machining centers can be divided into three basic types:

1) Double swing of the tool means that both rotary axes act on the tool.

2) The worktable has double rotation, that is, both rotation axes act on the workpiece.

3) The tool and the workbench rotate respectively, that is, the two rotary axes act on the tool and the workbench respectively.

In order to ensure the rigidity of machining, this article uses a five-coordinate machining center with a double-rotation workbench, which has three translational axes X, Y, and Z and two rotational axes A and C that act on the workbench.

The production batch of lenses is generally relatively large, so the processing efficiency is particularly important, and the automatic tool change function is essential. Depending on the number of tools used in processing, it is recommended that there be no less than 5 tool changing positions.

2. Lens processing and clamping

There are currently two main clamping methods for lens processing: 1) machine clamp type; 2) air suction type. The machine clamp type clamping is relatively firm, but it is prone to the defect of clamping deformation. Air suction clamping is relatively smooth. As long as the air suction force is sufficient, the clamping task can be completed well. In order to make the clamping more stable, two kinds of clamping can also be used at the same time.

3. Bottom mold CNC machining trajectory planning

The bottom mold includes two parts: wood mold and rubber mold.

1. Wood mold processing trajectory planning

It can be seen from the shape of the wooden mold that its processing trajectory can be planned in a three-axis manner. The wooden mold blank is made of wood pulp and has a soft texture, so the processing feed speed and spindle speed can be higher, which can be set to 1000mm/min and 20000r/min respectively.

Generally speaking, the roughing machining strategy is cavity milling (CAVITY_MILL), which uses reciprocating machining to improve machining efficiency. The progressive height of the machining layer by layer is 1mm, and the generated machining trajectory is generated.

The finishing strategy is fixed axis contour milling (FIXED_CONTOUR), the upper surface is selected as the drive geometry (DriveGeometry), and the residual height is generally set to 0.02mm.

After the trajectory is converted into NC code, the wooden mold is actually processed.

2. Rubber mold processing trajectory planning

Since the rubber mold is a material in direct contact with the lens blank, the upper surface of the rubber mold must fit well with the lens blank ground, so as to ensure sufficient clamping force and make the lens processing process stable. The processing technology of the rubber mold is: first bond the rubber mold to the surface of the processed wooden mold, process the required inner and outer contours of the rubber mold, and then smooth the upper surface of the rubber mold according to the shape of the bottom surface of the lens blank (the residual height is generally is 0.01mm), ensuring that the lens blank and the rubber mold fit tightly.

After the rubber mold is bonded to the wooden mold, it deforms into an aspherical surface. Therefore, the processing trajectory of the inner and outer rings cannot be planned using three-axis processing. Five-axis processing must be used to plan the processing trajectory. The sides of the inner and outer rings of the rubber mold are straight-grained surfaces, which can theoretically be processed and formed in one go.

Considering the characteristics of the rubber material, one-time molding can easily cause the material of the inner and outer rings to tear, which will lead to insufficient clamping when processing the lens. This article uses three processes to complete the processing of the outer ring. Therefore, it is still divided into several passes for processing and forming. UGNX3.0 provides a large number of multi-axis machining trajectory planning methods, among which the Swarf method is mainly used for trajectory planning of ruled surfaces.

After processing the inner and outer rings of the rubber mold, it is necessary to use fixed-axis contour milling to smooth the surface, so that the gap between the lens and the rubber mold can be small and the clamping stable enough during lens processing.

After the trajectory is converted into NC code, the rubber mold is processed.

4. Lens processing trajectory planning

The five-axis CNC programming function of UGNX3.0 is very powerful. Commonly used driving methods are curve/point driving method (Curves/Point), boundary driving method (Boundary), spiral driving method (Spiral), and area milling driving method (Fixed_Contour). , surface area driving method (SurfaceArea), tool path driving method (ToolPath), etc. Commonly used tool axis control methods include NormaltoPart (perpendicular to the part surface), RelativetoPart (relative to the driving surface), Interpolate, NormaltoDrive, SwarfDrive, RelativetoDrive, etc. Among them, the driving method that is more suitable for lens processing is the surface area driving method (SurfaceArea), and the tool axis control method is SwarfDrive.

According to the processing technology of the lens, the planning of its processing trajectory is mainly divided into two steps:

1. Lens roughing trajectory planning

The lens roughing process should remove excess lens blank material to prepare for the finishing process, and the tool used is a flat-bottomed end mill. The lens blank material is made of glass or other polymer materials, which are relatively hard and brittle in nature. In order to facilitate the blank waste to fall off as soon as possible, we try to make it in one piece.

The rough processing trajectory planning method is Swarf, and the processing drive geometry selects the lens side. Taking into account the nature of the lens blank material, it is necessary to set the processing direction and advance and retreat knives reasonably. Roughing requires a certain machining allowance, which is completed by the rounding process.

2. Rounding processing trajectory planning

The rounding process rounds the edge of the lens to make the edge of the lens smooth, making it easier to install the finished product into the target frame. The generally used tool is the R rounding knife. Since the lens material easily forms cutting burrs when heated, high-pressure gas cooling is required during the rounding process to reduce deformation after processing, and cutting waste is continuously removed.

The method of planning the rounding machining trajectory is similar to roughing. It should be noted that the processing trajectory should be planned according to the center line of the lens side, so that the rounded lens side can be smooth and consistent and meet the process requirements.

Choosing the right CAM software for five-axis machining

Five-axis machining technology programmed with appropriate CAM software can provide users with more realistic and effective strategies to reduce cycle times, reduce machining steps, improve surface quality and machining quality, and extend tool life, which are difficult to achieve with traditional three-axis machining. It’s impossible.

Five-axis machining improves surface quality

Five-axis machining technology is suitable for processing complex curved surfaces. Therefore, it is widely used in aerospace, automobiles, mold models and other fields. The main advantages of using five-axis machining technology in mold processing are short processing times and high surface quality. For mold manufacturing companies, the application of five-axis machining technology can achieve higher product quality and shorter delivery cycles.

Positioning five-axis machining

Nowadays, more and more machine tools and controllers can adapt to the requirements of five-axis milling. However, in terms of CAM software, the true five-axis linkage machining has not been popular enough. Some users still adopt the positioning five-axis method. Axis machining (3+2) method requires complicated optimization.

Positioning five-axis machining is completed through a “three-axis” system, with the fourth and fifth axes of machining positioned in rotational positions. Its main advantages are: effective use of shorter tools, less tool protrusion, faster cutting, extended tool life, improved machining accuracy and surface accuracy, all by simply creating a series of positioning work planes. In addition, positioning five-axis machining requires fewer processing steps, which saves time, reduces machine tool processing error rates, and improves machine tool utilization.

Five-axis linkage machining

When the mold cavity is deep and there are very narrow parts that need to be processed, if the three-axis tool path for positioning five-axis machining is still used, mutual interference is usually unavoidable. At the same time, some other areas may not be completely covered. At this time, five-axis simultaneous machining is definitely a better choice.

Of course, there are some advanced CAM systems on the market that can provide professional, reliable, and truly five-axis linkage machining solutions, such as the PowerMILL software of the British DELCAM company, the HyperMILL software of the German OPENMIND company, etc., which allow users to Create continuous five-axis tool paths on complex surfaces, solids and 3D models, and the tool paths are automatically checked and optimized to support a variety of machining strategies and all tool types.

The advantage of five-axis simultaneous machining is that it can continuously maintain an appropriate angle between the tool feed direction and the workpiece surface to obtain better surface quality, better access to chamfering, and improved tool life. More economical tool utilization, reduced cycle times, and one-time clamping all save time and reduce the error rate of machine tool processing.

Processing strategy

Five-axis machining applications in mold manufacturing mainly include rib processing, beveling, deep hole or core processing, etc. Groove processing, chamfering, steep wall and five-axis drilling can also make full use of the advantages of five-axis machining.

Using appropriate CAM software can improve the process strategy of five-axis machining. For example, vibration inspection of all tool paths, automatic calculation of curves, points, contours, and tool positions, etc., can all be completed automatically by the software. Some CAM software also supports all tools. design. Other machining strategies include “point strategies”, such as improving cutting conditions and improving machining accuracy through tool alignment.

A common problem with five-axis tool paths is that the tool vibrates in the normal direction of contact with the workpiece surface to be processed, resulting in surface quality defects. This problem can be solved by using a simplified reference surface to cancel the vibration.

Fully integrated tool path inspection provides thorough inspection against overcutting and vibration. Simulation and verification of machine motion detects and displays potential vibration, axial movement, and allows manual adjustment of any axis. In addition, choosing the right CAM software can automatically avoid vibrations, prevent impacts, and protect equipment.

Tool path optimization

CAM software can help users optimize tool paths.

Rainbow coloring can display the machining sequence, and the axes are displayed in reverse color. Visual inspection may take into account tool geometry, speed and feed. Because new CAM features describe tip characteristics, users can see actual tool processes and effects, accurately displaying feed rates and effects as well as workpiece surface quality, allowing surface finish values to be predicted before actual machining.

The reallocation of points provides a way to reduce processing time. In one example, a five-axis machining center with a spindle speed of 7500 mm/min could speed up cycle time by 39% through point redistribution and comparison with standard tolerance data. The redistribution of points allows the programmer to easily handle tool path smoothness and the distribution of points on that path in order to obtain these results.

User value

No matter which way, for mold manufacturing companies, the advantages of using five-axis machining technology are mainly reflected in the following aspects:

1. Shorten processing time: Five-axis machining can reduce the manufacturing process and the number of workpiece clampings as well as EDM area and mold polishing processing, thus greatly shortening the overall processing time and shortening the delivery cycle.

2. Improve quality: Using shorter tools can reduce deviations, obtain higher machining accuracy and more stable surface quality.

3. Reduce costs: Five-axis machining can extend the service life of tools and reduce the use of other processing equipment. For example, reducing electrical machining equipment can reduce the use of electrical stages.

In the actual application process, experienced users will also set up many templates, which can save more time and reduce the error rate of future programs, and complete process simulation can be performed on the computer to prevent errors during workshop processing.

When using five-axis machining, users may need to adjust the clamping strategy so that as many workpiece characteristics as possible can be taken into account in the programming of five-axis machining. Standard clamping devices generally do not allow contact with multiple sides of the workpiece, but the dedicated five-axis tooling mechanism and magnetic clamping mechanism can easily access the parts being processed, so they are favored by users.

The advantages of five-axis machining also include that multiple processing methods (three-axis HSM, positioning five-axis, continuous five-axis, five-axis drilling, etc.) only require one piece of equipment, and the spindle speed and feed speed are fast. In addition, Five-axis machine tools also tend to be smaller in size and have better stiffness, which can further improve enterprise application benefits.

The technology behind five-axis machining and high-speed machining continues to improve and become more widely used. Although the investment for these advancements in technology and equipment may seem relatively high at first glance, the benefits in terms of tool life, efficiency, and actual operating costs have completely offset these initial cost increases.

Intelligent and efficient five-axis machining programming system

The advantages of improving surface accuracy, shortening processing time, and reducing the number of clamping times make 5-axis machining technology the most important component in the development of the current manufacturing industry. Therefore, its development has always attracted the attention of all manufacturers. In Europe, 5-axis machining has become quite popular, but it has developed relatively slowly in China. The reason is that software functions, program security and users’ technical experience are all important factors that restrict the development of 5-axis machining technology in China.

VeroSoftware is a company specializing in the development of CAD/CAM/CAE software for the manufacturing industry. The software product series covers the design and manufacturing of injection molds, cold punching dies, progressive dies and shoe molds, multi-axis laser cutting and wire cutting, etc., for Manufacturers provide integrated solutions. Currently, the products are widely used by more than 20,000 users around the world, covering most manufacturing fields such as automobile manufacturing, electronic industry, medical equipment, white goods, and aerospace. As an important part of the VeroSoftware series, Visi-5AxisMachining provides operators with a productive solution that uses advanced interference control to create efficient tool paths for complex 3D data, which will best satisfy modern Requirements for 5-axis machining technology.

VISI provides the industry with a unique 3D > 5-axis conversion function that can directly convert all 3D tool paths into 5-axis programs. This will greatly increase the number of already extremely rich 5-axis strategies to cover all possibilities. status. Using this approach will enable high-speed machining techniques to be applied to 5-axis tool paths. And this 3D > 5-axis conversion feature provides intelligent interference checking, automatically tilting the tool to avoid the workpiece when needed. This semi-automatic type of tool path will greatly speed up programming and shorten the learning cycle. The complete functions, rich processing strategies, and product system are easy to learn and use, allowing users of Visi-5AxisMachining to easily handle 5-axis processing of molds and products such as deep cavities, turbine blades, and propellers.

For example, in many complex molds, some deep cavities or cliff locations are often encountered. In traditional 3-axis machining, extended tools and rods have to be used, and even electrodes need to be removed for EDM processing. However, this not only increases The cost of processing increases the production cycle, increases tool deflection and multiple clamping errors, resulting in very low surface quality. By cutting at different angles, the spindle head can be lowered. Visi-5AxisMachining can effectively detect interference and automatically tilt the tool and tool holder to avoid the workpiece or fixture (see Figure 1). The main advantage of this strategy is the ability to use shorter tools, which increases tool stiffness and reduces vibration and runout. Constant cutting load and high cutting speed can ultimately achieve the effect of extending tool life and producing high-quality surface quality. When processing flatter areas, using a large-diameter bullnose cutter with a certain tilt angle can produce a smaller number of tool paths, thereby reducing processing time and improving the quality of the curved surface.

Figure 1 Visi-5AxisMachining can effectively detect interference and automatically tilt the tool and tool holder to avoid the workpiece or fixture

The machining of turbine blades and propellers has long been considered the standard for five-axis machining technology due to high surface quality, positional constraints and oblique movement of the rotation axis, and Visi-5AxisMachining provides all the necessary tools for the successful machining of such parts. . Visi-5AxisMachining establishes each continuous spiral tool path along the product with evenly distributed coordinates, allowing the tool to obtain the most regular and smooth contact, stable spindle load and the most constant movement of all 5 axes during cutting, thereby reducing Impact of unnecessary vibration on thin ribs.

In 5-axis machining, small movements of the tool may cause very large movements in each axis of the 5-axis machine tool, because each movement is amplified by the tool, tool holder and spindle. When interference occurs, Visi-5AxisMachining provides a variety of smooth axis motion methods to avoid interference. Interference avoidance strategies include strategies such as lifting the tool along the tool axis, tilting the tool for tool handle interference, and lifting the tool in a given direction that can avoid the workpiece. In addition to automatic interference avoidance, the rotation axis will also be limited to the movement range of the custom axis, thereby preventing the spindle from exceeding its travel.

In addition to traditional cutting simulation, Visi-5AxisMachining provides machine tool motion simulation specifically for 5-axis machining. Motion simulation can use the real machine tool dimensions and the rotation or movement range of each axis to conduct safety checks on the mechanism during the entire operation of the tool path. The over-cutting of the cutting tool and tool holder with the blank, fixture and any other parts on the machine tool will be graphically highlighted, and the rotation or movement of each axis will be detected for overtravel, allowing users to obtain the safest NC program.

There are various configurations of 5-axis CNC machine tools on the market, such as double swing of the worktable, double swing of the spindle, compound motion of table rotation and spindle swing, etc. VISI has a large post-processor library that can be applied to most machine tools on the market. In addition, all post-processors are fully customizable to suit different needs. For example, output CNC code for 3+2 axes or 5 axes linkage. By transmitting smooth and efficient CNC code to the machine tool controller, it will reduce unnecessary acceleration and deceleration movements on the machine tool, allowing the machine tool to run as close as possible to the programmed feed rate, which will help the machine tool operation. faster and prevents sudden direction changes, eliminating undue stress on the tool.

CimatronE five-axis machining technology

With the continuous innovation and breakthrough of CNC technology, five-axis machining is adopted by more and more industries, such as aerospace, electric power, shipbuilding, high-precision instruments, mold manufacturing, etc. However, automatic programming software plays a key role in five-axis machining technology, because the process layout of the tool path, the interference check between the tool chuck and the workpiece or the tool fixture, and the identification of the remaining amount of the blank are all automatically considered by the software , programmers cannot achieve it through calculation. They only optimize cutting parameters based on experience to obtain a more reasonable and effective machining trajectory.

CimatronE software is one of the most intelligent and efficient software in today’s five-axis machining technology. It has specialized solutions for complex five-axis mold and five-axis product processing.

In terms of mold processing:

1. Use the blank residual knowledge and blank quick preview function to automatically identify the residual amount after each processing and optimize the tool path, which is safe and efficient; you can quickly observe the processing results without calculating the tool path program, which facilitates repeated optimization of parameters. When the results are consistent Perform final one-time error-free calculations upon request, saving programming time.

2. Automatically calculate the shortest tool length, which can make reasonable use of tools and save costs.

3. Processing based on slope analysis technology automatically analyzes the slope of the surface and calculates the surface into flat areas and steep areas. Implement different tool feeding methods in different areas to achieve composite processing.

4. Automatically consider the interference of the tool chuck and perform three-axis cutting in the area without interference; when the tool length is insufficient and interference occurs, the angle is automatically swung to achieve five-axis simultaneous processing.

5. Realize the five-axis root cleaning function, combined with the knowledge of blank residuals, efficient and safe; use the secondary roughening option to homogenize the residual blanks at the fillets to solve the problem of excessive diameter between the root cleaning tool and the previous tool. Large, it brings too much residual material and causes the trouble of knife breakage.

6. Fully integrated with CAD to facilitate the modification and editing of curves, surfaces and entities without data conversion.

In terms of product processing:

1. There is a special five-axis machining strategy for special parts, such as impellers, blades, elbows, etc., to achieve five-axis linkage roughing, finishing and filleting.

2. Correct and safe cutter axis tilt control, the tool can be moved according to the direction of points, curves, coordinate axes and surface UV lines. At the same time, the algorithm based on the tool contact point avoids zero-speed cutting and improves surface quality.

3. Multi-axis blank function. When the workbench or tool rotates by an angle, it can automatically identify the blank in the current coordinate system, cut evenly and safely, reduce empty tools, and improve efficiency.

4. Intelligent interference inspection of the blade, tool holder and tool handle, and reflects it to the user in the form of a report.

5. Rapid five-axis drilling function. According to the set angle limit, the shape and position of the hole can be automatically identified without the need for user selection; after the hole position is determined, the shape and size parameters of the hole are automatically displayed, which is conducive to user proofreading and editing; at the same time, the system is unified and grouped to facilitate user editing. and modifications.

6. Powerful background auxiliary functions. Supports post-processing of all international control systems and custom formats; supports machine tool simulation of tool paths and machine tool simulation of reverse-reading post-processing codes.

In summary, CimatronE’s five-axis machining function is extremely intelligent, safe and efficient. It provides a wealth of processing strategies for processing complex molds and products. It is easy to learn and use. It is a powerful and comprehensive five-axis machining software.

Five-axis post-processing of spindle compound swing

The main contents of post-processing include: output of CNC instructions, format conversion output, and machine tool kinematic solution processing. Among them, the output of CNC system control instructions involves the control of machine tool type, machine tool configuration, machine tool positioning, interpolation, spindle, feed, pause, cooling, tool compensation, fixed cycle, program head and tail output, etc.; format conversion output Including data type conversion, string processing and output address characters, etc.; kinematic algorithm processing, that is, post-processing algorithm design, mainly for coordinate conversion during multi-coordinate machining, machine tool kinematics definition, cross-quadrant processing and feed speed Controls isogeometric motion transformation calculations.

In principle, the post-processing process is interpreted and executed, that is, every time a complete record line in the tool position data file is read, coordinate transformation or file code conversion is performed according to the selected machine tool, a complete CNC program segment is generated, and written to In the CNC program file, until the end of the tool position data file. Using object-oriented technology, a data structure for recording tool location file information and a method for processing format conversion output were established, thus realizing a post-processing system.

The post-processing program consists of 6 modules: tool location file reading, post-parameter setting, post-mode judgment, data conversion, processing program output and data display modules. Among them, the post-processing method judgment module is used to judge the processing method of the tool location file; the tool location file reading module reads the coordinate values ​​of the tool center and the tool center in the tool path one by one according to the characteristics of the tool location file. Axis vector values, as well as other information contained in the tool location file; the data conversion module implements the angle calculation in the post-processing algorithm and the calculation of the necessary linear coordinate values.

Based on object-oriented technology, when we add a new multi-axis post-processing system, we only need to change the data conversion module in it to quickly establish the post-processing of multiple multi-axis CNC machine tools, achieving Code reusability. The figure shows the application of this post-processing system on the DMU200P CNC machine tool. The tool position file is displayed on the left side of the window, and the post-processed NC data file is displayed on the right side.

Development of post-processing program based on UGNX platform

The most important thing in post-processing is to convert the tool position trajectory generated by the CAM software into an NC program suitable for CNC system processing. By reading the tool position file, the coordinate motion transformation and instruction format conversion are performed according to the machine tool motion structure and control instruction format. The universal post-processing program is processed based on the standard tool position trajectory and the motion configuration and control instructions of the universal CNC system. It includes machine tool coordinate motion transformation, nonlinear motion error verification, feed speed verification, CNC program format conversion and CNC program output, etc. Only by using the correct post-processing system can the tool position trajectory be output into a CNC program that can be processed correctly by the corresponding CNC system machine tool. Therefore, compiling the correct post-processing system template is one of the prerequisites for CNC programming and processing.

The main content of post-processing includes three aspects:

① The output of CNC system control instructions: mainly includes control of machine tool type and machine tool configuration, machine tool positioning, interpolation, spindle, feed, pause, cooling, tool compensation, fixed cycle, program head and tail output, etc.

②Format conversion: data type conversion and rounding, string processing, etc.: mainly for the control of the output format of the CNC system such as units, output address characters, etc.

③Algorithm processing: Mainly aimed at coordinate transformation, cross-quadrant processing, and feed speed control during multi-coordinate machining.

Five-axis CNC machine tools have various configurations. The typical configuration has two swinging worktables that rotate around the X-axis and the Y-axis. The second main axis swings around the X-axis or the Y-axis, and the other worktable rotates around the Y-axis or the X-axis accordingly. Five-axis simultaneous machining that swings to construct space. For five-axis CNC machine tools whose main axis does not swing, the swing axis has a primary and secondary dependence relationship, that is, the movement of the primary swing axis (PrimaryTable) affects the spatial position of the secondary swing axis (SecondaryTable), while the movement of the secondary swing axis does not affect the primary swing. The spatial position status of the axis.

FIDIAKR214 is a six-axis five-linkage high-speed milling machining center with a rotary table, in which the C-axis is the driving axis, the A-axis is the driven dependent axis, and the rotary table is the W-axis; because most existing CAM software does not support six-axis linkage CNC program post-processing, and in actual processing, general five-axis linkage is sufficient to meet the needs of generation. Based on the processing characteristics of this machine tool, a five-axis linkage post-processing program for three linear axes X, Y, Z, A, and C as well as a five-axis post-processing program including three linear axes and A/W can be compiled as needed. These two post-processing program solutions can meet engineering needs and modify the post-processing program suitable for KR214 (or K211) CNC machine tools.

Integral impeller machining CNC programming

When performing five-coordinate machining programming, machining strategy division is very important for product quality, especially when CNC programming of complex products has higher requirements. The overall impeller is subjected to five-coordinate high-speed milling. The roughing and finishing milling methods and tool path strategies, the reasonable arrangement of the roughing and finishing process margins, the cutting process parameters machining step distance, machining depth, spindle speed, machine tool feed, etc. are crucial to the selection. Improving the processing efficiency and quality of products is crucial.

Based on experience, the five-coordinate cutting process parameters can be scientifically tested, summarized and selected through orthogonal experiments and other methods for different processing product objects, different materials, tool shank tools, and cutting methods. Table 2 shows a comparison of the high-speed cutting process parameters and processing conditions of an aluminum alloy.

As shown in Figure 5, an integral impeller is processed on the FIDIAKR215 five-coordinate high-speed milling center according to the processing sequence of three-axis milling roughing displacement, five-axis flow channel displacement, five-axis blade fine milling, and five-axis flow channel finishing milling. Examples of cutting of this product and its product processing. Table 2 shows the comparison of different cutting process parameters in high-speed cutting of aluminum alloys.

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