The strategic value of five-axis linkage CNC machine tools

The equipment manufacturing industry is the cornerstone of a country’s industry. It provides an important means for the development of new technologies, new products and modern industrial production. It is an indispensable strategic industry. Even developed industrialized countries all attach great importance to it. In recent years, with the rapid development of our country’s national economy and the needs of national defense construction, there has been an urgent and large demand for high-end CNC machine tools. Machine tools are a symbol of a country’s manufacturing level. The five-axis linkage CNC machine tool system represents the highest level of machine tool manufacturing. In a sense, it reflects the level of industrial development of a country.

For a long time, Western industrialized countries, led by the United States, have regarded five-axis CNC machine tool systems as important strategic materials and implemented an export license system. Especially during the Cold War, blockades and embargoes were implemented against China, the former Soviet Union and other socialist camps. Military-loving friends may know the famous “Toshiba Incident”: At the end of the last century, Japan’s Toshiba Company sold several five-axis linkage CNC milling machines to the former Soviet Union. As a result, the propellers used by the former Soviet Union to manufacture submarines were upgraded several grades. The sonar of the American butterfly ship cannot detect the sound of the submarine, so the United States wants to punish Toshiba for violating the strategic material embargo policy.

It can be seen that the five-axis linkage CNC machine tool system has a decisive influence on a country’s aviation, aerospace, military, scientific research, precision equipment, high-precision medical equipment and other industries. Nowadays, it is generally believed that the five-axis linkage CNC machine tool system is the only means to solve the processing of impellers, blades, marine propellers, heavy-duty generator rotors, steam turbine rotors, large diesel engine crankshafts, etc. Therefore, whenever people encounter unsolvable problems in designing and developing complex curved surfaces, they often turn to five-axis CNC systems for help. Because the five-axis linkage CNC machine tool system is very expensive, and it is difficult to create NC programs, it is difficult for the five-axis system to be applied to “civilians”.

However, in recent years, with the breakthrough development of computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) systems, many Chinese CNC companies such as Shanxing Company have launched five-axis linkage CNC machine tool systems, breaking through foreign technology. The blockade has occupied the highest point of this strategic industry and greatly reduced its application costs, thus ushering in a new era for China’s equipment manufacturing industry! The development of modern science represented by information technology has injected an influx into the equipment manufacturing industry. The strong driving force also puts forward stronger requirements for it, which further highlights the irreplaceable basic role of the machinery and equipment manufacturing industry as a carrier of high-tech industrialization in promoting technological progress and industrial upgrading of the entire society.

As the driving force behind national economic growth and technological upgrading, the mechanical equipment manufacturing industry represented by five-axis linkage will progress together with the development of high-tech and emerging industries. China not only wants to be a major manufacturing country in the world, but also a powerful manufacturing country in the world! It is expected that in the near future, with the popularization and promotion of five-axis linkage CNC machine tool systems, it will surely lay a solid foundation for China to become the most powerful country in the world!

Difficulties in five-axis machining

Five-axis machining methods and machine tools have been used by the foreign aviation industry as early as the 1960s in order to process some large parts with continuous smooth and complex free-form surfaces, but they have not been adopted in more industries. It is widely used and has developed rapidly only in the past 10 years. The reason is mainly that there are many difficulties in five-axis machining, such as:

1. Programming is complex and difficult.

Because five-axis machining is different from three-axis machining, in addition to three linear motions, there are also two rotational motions involved. The spatial trajectory of the resulting synthetic motion is very complex and abstract, and is generally difficult to imagine and understand. For example, in order to process the required spatial free-form surface, it is often necessary to go through multiple coordinate transformations and complex spatial geometric operations. At the same time, the coordination of the motion of each axis must be considered to avoid interference and collision, and the interpolation motion must be timely and appropriate, etc. In order to ensure the required machining accuracy and surface quality, programming is even more difficult.

2. High requirements for CNC and servo control systems.

Since five-axis machining requires five-axis simultaneous coordinated motion, this requires that the CNC system must first have at least five-axis linkage control functions; in addition, since rotational motion is added to the synthetic motion, this not only increases the workload of interpolation operations, but also increases the workload of interpolation operations. And because small errors in rotation may be amplified and greatly affect the accuracy of machining, the CNC system is required to have higher operating speed (i.e. shorter processing time for a single program segment) and accuracy. All of this means that the CNC system must increase the processor of the RISC chip for processing (ie, use multiple high-bit CPU structures). In addition, as mentioned before, the mechanical configuration of the five-axis machining machine tool includes tool rotation mode, workpiece rotation mode and a mixture of the two. The CNC system must also be able to meet the requirements of different configurations. Finally, in order to achieve high-speed, high-precision five-axis machining, the CNC system must also have a look-ahead function and a large buffer storage capacity, so that motion data can be calculated and processed in advance and multi-stage buffering can be performed before program execution. Storage to ensure that the error remains small when the tool is running at high speed. All these requirements will undoubtedly increase the complexity of the CNC system structure and the difficulty of development.

The mechanical structure design and manufacturing of three- and five-axis machine tools are also more complex and difficult than those of three-axis machine tools.

Because the machine tool needs to add two rotation axis coordinates, it must use a worktable that can tilt and rotate or a spindle head component that can rotate and swing. The two added components require not only a compact structure, but also sufficient torque, motion sensitivity and precision, which is obviously much more difficult than designing and manufacturing ordinary three-axis processing machine tools.

The development trend of five-axis machine tools


直线电机的优点是直线驱动、无传动链、无磨损、无背隙,因此能达到最佳的定位精度。直线电机具有高动态性,可实现超过 2g 的加速度。采用直线电机驱动还具有可靠性高、免维护的特点。


Advantages of five-axis linkage machine tools

这里所谓的五轴加工是指机床至少有五个坐标轴(三个直线坐标和两个旋转坐标),在计算机数控(CNC)系统的控制下可以同时协调运动进行加工。 。与普通三轴联动数控加工相比,此类五轴联动数控加工具有以下主要优点:




N8 1.6-3.2μm

N7 0.8-1.6μm

N6 0.4-0.8μm

N5 0.2-0.4μm




The meaning of five-axis milling





五轴联动加工的轴数是指加工同一曲面时需要独立运动的轴数,而不是CNC拥有的可控轴数。例如,龙门铣床为了保证横向梁升降的直线度,需要左右两根驱动轴W1、 W2同步运动,即W​​​​1为驱动轴,W2轴为驱动轴​​​​。此时同步。因此,它们只能用于独立的运动轴。另外,如果复杂的雕塑具有表面旋转体的特性,则不需要Y轴运动,可以在数控车床或车削中心上实现。最大联动轴数多为四个独立轴。


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