Turning compound machine tools

1. Turning center

It is usually developed based on ordinary CNC lathes and equipped with one or more turret tool holders with multiple tool positions. The processing objects are mainly rotary parts such as shafts and disc sleeves.

Since about half of the parts in the rotary body mainly require turning processing, they also require partial milling, drilling and tapping. Therefore, the rotary body part can be clamped in one lathe. For all or most of the processing, in addition to turning tools, the turret tool holder of the turning center can also be equipped with rotating power tools such as milling cutters, drills and taps, and the machine tool spindle has a C-axis with CNC precision indexing. The function is linked to the C and Z axes or the C and X axes. Such a turning center can not only turn the internal and external surfaces (including cylindrical surfaces, conical surfaces, curved surfaces, etc.) and end surfaces of rotary parts like ordinary CNC lathes, but can also use the C-Z axis linkage function to turn threads, and use the C-axis The indexing function and the X or Y axis control of the tool holder and the power rotating tool on it can perform drilling and milling deviated from the center line of the rotary body, thereby greatly expanding the combined processing capabilities of CNC lathes.

However, for a single-spindle turning center, no matter how its process capabilities are expanded, it cannot solve the problem of secondary processing of the back side (original clamping end) of the rotary body in one clamping. This is the shortcoming of the single-spindle turning center. and the reasons for developing the new turning center.

2. Double spindle turning center

In order to overcome the shortcomings of single-spindle turning centers, machine tool designers and manufacturers added a sub-spindle that is opposite the original spindle on the axis and a multi-tool sub-turret tool holder based on the single-spindle turning center. , making the machine tool a turning center with dual spindles and dual tool holders. The main and auxiliary spindles rotate in the same direction synchronously and both have the function of C-axis control. The auxiliary spindle can also move along the axial direction Z to pick up the parts processed on the right end of the main spindle. After the sub-spindle picks up the finished workpiece and returns it to the appropriate position, the left end (original clamping end) is processed by the tool on the sub-tool rest. The main and auxiliary tool holders are located above and below the main and auxiliary spindles respectively, and can be programmed separately. Therefore, the double-spindle and double-tool holder turning center can complete the comprehensive processing of the rotary body parts in one clamping.

3. Turning-milling compound machining center and milling-turning compound machining center

The former is mostly based on a single-spindle or dual-spindle turning center, with the upper turret tool holder replaced by an electric spindle milling head equipped with a tool magazine and tool change mechanism, such as the Integrex-IVST produced by Japan’s Yamazaki Mazak Company. series and the GMXLinear series (pictured) turn-milling compound machining center produced by the German DMG company. Its electric spindle milling head can not only move along the X1 and Z1 axes, but also have Y-axis travel and B-axis rotation. The latter – milling and turning combined machining centers are mostly based on five-side or five-axis linkage milling and boring machining centers, and are developed by replacing the rotating worktable with a torque motor-driven turntable that rotates at a much higher speed than ordinary turntables. . Whether it is the former or the latter, both have the functions of CNC lathes and machining centers. They were developed to meet the processing needs of complex-shaped parts that have both the characteristics of rotary parts and prismatic parts.

It is worth mentioning that when performing turning tasks on a mill-turn composite machining center, the torque motor-driven turntable will be used as the workpiece spindle of the lathe, and the milling head spindle, which was originally used as a milling machining center, must now be locked and installed. The upper turning tool is used as the tool holder of the lathe. Due to multi-axis control and five-axis linkage, turning-milling centers and milling-turning centers can not only complete various turning processes, but also complete various drilling, milling, boring, tapping and other processes; not only can they process rotary parts and Prismatic parts, and are particularly suitable for processing hybrid parts with very complex shapes. Its wide range of processes and strong capabilities can be said to be the leader in today’s cutting compound processing machine tools.

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