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Technical issues that should be paid attention to in the use of CNC machine tools

In order to give full play to the benefits of CNC machine tools, the maintenance of equipment has to be paid attention to, and in the machining process, CNC machine tools are mostly electrical faults every day, so electrical maintenance is more important!

Problems that should be paid attention to in the use of CNC equipment

1. The use environment of CNC equipment

In order to improve the service life of CNC equipment, it is generally required to avoid direct sunlight and other thermal radiation, and avoid places that are too humid, too dusty or have corrosive gases. Corrosive gases can easily corrode and deteriorate electronic components, resulting in poor contact or short circuits between components, which affects the normal operation of equipment. Precision CNC equipment should be kept away from equipment with high vibration, such as punching machines, forging equipment, etc.

2. Power requirements

In order to avoid the impact of large power fluctuations (greater than ±10%) and possible instantaneous interference signals, CNC equipment generally adopts special line power supply (such as a separate road from the low-voltage distribution room for CNC machine tools) or adds voltage stabilizing devices, which can reduce the impact of power supply quality and electrical interference.

3. Operating procedures

The operating procedures are one of the important measures to ensure the safe operation of CNC machine tools, and the operator must operate according to the operating procedures. When the machine tool fails, the operator should pay attention to retaining the scene, and truthfully explain the situation before and after the failure to the maintenance personnel, so as to facilitate the analysis and diagnosis of the cause of the fault and eliminate it in time.

In addition, CNC machine tools should not be sealed for a long time, and they should be fully utilized after the purchase of CNC machine tools, especially in the first year of use, so that the weak links that are prone to failure are exposed as soon as possible and can be eliminated during the warranty period. When there is no processing task, the CNC machine tool should also be powered on regularly, preferably 1-2 times a week, each time it runs for about 1 hour, in order to use the heat of the machine tool itself to reduce the humidity in the machine, so that the electronic components will not be damp, and at the same time, it can also find out whether there is a battery alarm in time to prevent the loss of system software and parameters.

Maintenance of CNC systems

1. Strictly abide by the operating procedures and daily maintenance system

2. The doors of CNC cabinets and strong current cabinets should be opened as little as possible

In the air in the machining workshop, there will generally be oil mist, dust and even metal powder, once they fall on the circuit board or electronic devices in the CNC system, it is easy to cause the insulation resistance between components to decrease, and even lead to damage to components and circuit boards. In order to make the CNC system overloaded and work for a long time in the summer, some users take the door of the CNC cabinet to dissipate heat, which is an extremely undesirable method, which will eventually lead to the accelerated damage of the CNC system.

3. Clean the heat dissipation and ventilation system of the CNC cabinet regularly

You should check whether the individual cooling fans on the CNC cabinet are working properly. Check whether the air duct filter is blocked every six months or quarters, if the dust on the filter screen accumulates too much and is not cleaned in time, it will cause the temperature in the CNC cabinet to be too high.

4. Regular maintenance of the input/output device of the CNC system

Most of the CNC machine tools produced before the 80s are equipped with photoelectric paper tape readers, and if the reading tape part is contaminated, it will lead to errors in reading information. For this reason, the photoelectric reader must be maintained according to the regulations.

5. Regular inspection and replacement of DC motor brushes

The excessive wear of the brushes of the DC motor will affect the performance of the motor and even cause damage to the motor. For this purpose, the motor brushes should be regularly inspected and replaced. CNC lathes, CNC milling machines, machining centers, etc., should be inspected once a year.

6. Replace the storage battery regularly

Generally, the CMOSRAM memory device is equipped with a rechargeable battery maintenance circuit in the numerical control system to ensure that the content of its memory can be maintained during the period when the system is not powered on. In general, even if it has not yet failed, it should be replaced once a year to ensure that the system is working properly. The replacement of the battery should be carried out under the power supply state of the CNC system to prevent the loss of information in the RAM during replacement.

7. Maintenance of spare circuit boards

When the spare printed circuit board is not used for a long time, it should be regularly installed in the numerical control system and energized for a period of time to prevent damage.

Maintenance of mechanical components

1. Maintenance of the main drive chain

Regularly adjust the tightness of the spindle drive belt to prevent the loss of rotation caused by belt slippage; Check the constant temperature oil tank lubricated by the spindle, adjust the temperature range, replenish the oil volume in time, and clean the filter; After the tool clamping device in the spindle is used for a long time, there will be a gap, which will affect the clamping of the tool, and the displacement of the piston of the hydraulic cylinder needs to be adjusted in time.

2. Maintenance of ball screw thread pairs

Regularly check and adjust the axial clearance of the lead screw thread pair to ensure the reverse transmission accuracy and axial stiffness; Regularly check whether the connection between the lead screw and the bed is loose; If the lead screw guard is damaged, it should be replaced in time to prevent dust or chips from entering.

3. Maintenance of tool magazine and tool change manipulator

It is strictly forbidden to load overweight and over-long tools into the tool magazine to avoid the tool dropping or the tool colliding with the workpiece and fixture when the manipulator changes the tool; Always check whether the zero position of the tool magazine is correct, check whether the position of the tool change point of the machine tool spindle is in place, and adjust it in time; When the machine is turned on, the tool magazine and the manipulator should be run empty, and check whether each part is working normally, especially whether the travel switch and solenoid valve can operate normally; Check whether the tool is locked reliably on the manipulator, and deal with it in time if it is found to be abnormal.

Hydraulic, pneumatic system maintenance

Regularly clean or replace the filters or sub-filters of each lubrication, hydraulic, and pneumatic system; Regularly check the oil quality of the hydraulic system and replace the hydraulic oil; Regularly discharge water to the air filter of the air pressure system;

Maintenance of machine tool accuracy

The level and mechanical accuracy of the machine are checked and corrected on a regular basis. There are two types of correction methods for mechanical accuracy: soft and hard. The soft method is mainly through the system parameter compensation, such as the backlash compensation of the lead screw, the fixed-point compensation of the positioning accuracy of each coordinate, and the position correction of the machine tool back to the reference point. Hard methods are generally carried out during the overhaul of machine tools, such as guide rail scraping, ball screw nut pair preload adjustment backlash, etc.

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