Short tool five-axis milling technology

The use of short cutting tools is a main feature of five-axis machining. Short tools will significantly reduce tool deviation, thereby obtaining good surface quality, avoiding rework, reducing the use of welding rods, and shortening EDM processing time. When considering five-axis machining, the goal of using five-axis machining of molds must be to use the shortest cutting tool possible to complete the processing of the entire workpiece, including reducing programming, clamping and machining time while obtaining a more perfect surface quality. .

As long as the workpiece cavity is not very deep (relative to the tool diameter), a three-axis tool path (2, 3, 5) is sufficient. If the workpiece has deep pockets and narrow areas, it is not sufficient to use a pure three-axis toolpath to complete the entire finishing operation. In this case, poor surface quality and long machining times ensue. Figure 1 shows the situation of a three-axis tool path. Here, the shortest tool must be very long in order to be able to process all areas of the workpiece in the vertical direction.

Figure 1 Three-axis machining path

When using shorter tools, the spindle should be tilted to ensure that special areas of the workpiece can be machined. 3+2 axis machining is usually thought of as setting a constant angle to the spindle. Complex workpieces may require many tilted views to cover the entire workpiece, but this results in overlapping tool paths, which increases machining time.

Additionally, all the tilted views are difficult to combine accurately, which increases the amount of hand-sanding work and greatly increases in and out motions, often resulting in surface quality issues and more tool movement.

Figure 2 3+2 axis tool path

Finally, programming in this manner is interfering and time-consuming, and the sum of all views often does not cover the entire geometry. Figure 2 demonstrates four workpiece views, but there is still an area in the center of the workpiece that is not covered, and this area still requires an additional oblique view.

Figure 3 Five-axis tool path

In order to overcome the shortcomings of 3+2-axis machining, five-axis simultaneous machining may be a better choice, not to mention that some five-axis machine tools also have some functions specially designed for the mold industry. Five-axis linkage machining can coordinate three linear axes and two rotary axes so that they move simultaneously, solving all the problems of three-axis and 3+2-axis machining. The tool can be very short, and there will be no overlapping of views or omission of the processing area. Even less likely, processing can be carried out continuously without additional import and export (see Figure 3).

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