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Rationalization of milling cutter selection

1. Reasonable choice of milling tool applications with different tooth counts

Sparse-tooth milling cutters are unequal-pitch milling cutters. Because of the wide chip-bearing groove, they are suitable for milling long-chip metals such as stainless steel and aluminum alloy; and because the milling cutter has a small number of teeth milling metal at the same time, the cutting force generated is small, which is suitable for low-power spindle machine tools or workpieces with weak workpiece clamping.

Dense-tooth milling cutters are milling cutters with moderate number of teeth and have a wide range of versatility. They are usually recommended as the first choice.When the milling cutting force is required to be small, the method of reducing the number of blades is usually adopted, but the adjacent positions must be removed evenly.

Special dense tooth milling cutters are used in machine tools with sufficient spindle power. When the workpiece is clamped enough, the high-efficiency metal removal rate of large cutting depth and large tool walking can be obtained.It is also suitable for milling metals such as gray cast iron that require low chip capacity.

2. Reasonable choice of tool diameter

The choice of milling cutter diameter is usually based on the width of the workpiece and the effective power of the machine tool. By convention, the diameter of the milling cutter is selected according to the size of the workpiece, especially the milling width of the workpiece, but for a given face milling cutter, its optimal milling width is 70-80% of the nominal diameter of the milling cutter.So that the milling width is approximately equal to 2/3 of the diameter of the milling cutter, it can ensure that the blade cuts into the workpiece immediately from the beginning, with almost no friction. The milling width is less than 1/2 of the diameter of the milling cutter, and the blade begins to “rub” the workpiece. During rough milling, if the radial cutting width is less than 2/3 of the diameter of the milling cutter, the amount of tool travel will be increased, and the tool life will be improved.

3. Reasonable choice of the main declination angle of the tool

The main declination angle is the angle formed by the tool body and the front edge of the blade. The main declination angle will affect the chip thickness, cutting force and tool life. If the main declination angle is reduced at a given feed rate, the cutting thickness will be reduced. This is due to the fact that the cutting edge contacts the workpiece in a wider range. Reducing the main declination angle allows the blade to gradually cut into or exit the surface of the workpiece, which helps to reduce the radial pressure, protect the cutting edge of the blade, and reduce the chance of damage to the cutting edge, but its negative impact is that it will lead to an increase in axial pressure, which increases the possibility of vibration when machining thin-section workpieces and causes deviations on the machining surface.

Fourth, the reasonable choice of milling blades

It is best to use pressed blades for roughing, which can reduce processing costs.The dimensional accuracy and sharpness of the pressed blade are worse than that of the ground blade, but the edge strength of the pressed blade is better, it is resistant to impact during roughing and can withstand a larger depth of cut and feed.Sometimes the pressed blade has a chip rolling groove on the front tool surface, which can reduce the cutting force, but also reduce the friction with the workpiece and chips, and reduce the power requirement.However, the surface of the pressed blade is not as tight as that of the ground blade, the dimensional accuracy is poor, and the height of each tip on the milling cutter body differs a lot.Because the pressing blade is cheap, it is widely used in production.

For precision milling, it is best to choose a grinding blade.This kind of blade has good dimensional accuracy, so the positioning accuracy of the blade in milling is high, and good machining accuracy and surface roughness can be obtained.In addition, the development trend of grinding and milling blades used in finishing is to grind out the chip rolling groove to form a large positive front angle cutting edge, allowing the blade to cut on a small feed and a small depth of cut.For cemented carbide blades without sharp front corners, when small-feed and small-cut deep processing is used, the tip of the blade will rub against the workpiece and the tool life is short.

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