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Installation, commissioning and acceptance of machining centers

The CNC machining center is a high-precision electromechanical product that integrates advanced manufacturing technology and computer control technology. It is a CNC machine tool with a tool magazine that can automatically change tools and perform multi-process processing on workpieces. The installation and debugging of the CNC machining center means that after the machine tool is delivered to the user, it is installed at the work site according to the requirements of the machine tool provider and necessary debugging is performed. These tasks mainly include the preparation of machine tool foundations, the connection of machine tools, the connection and adjustment of CNC systems, power-on test runs, and testing of machine tool accuracy and functions. For small CNC machine tools, this work is relatively simple. However, CNC machining centers are generally too large. Machine tool manufacturers usually disassemble the machine tool into several parts when shipping, and then reassemble and debug the machine tool after it is used at the user’s place. Therefore, The work is more complex.

1. Preliminary installation of machining center

(1) The machine tool is initially in place. Before the machine tool is shipped, the user should make preparations for installation according to the relevant machine tool installation data provided by the machine tool manufacturer in advance, such as preparing the foundation, reserving installation holes, and providing machine tool power supply, etc. After the machine tool arrives, inventory the parts according to the packing list. Are the cables, materials, etc. complete? Then, follow the installation instructions to place the major components that make up the machine tool in place on the foundation. When in place, horn. Adjust the backing plate and anchor screws accordingly.

(2) Machine tool connection

Before assembling each component of the machine tool, the anti-rust paint on the mounting connection surface, guide rails and each moving surface should first be removed, and basic cleaning of each component should be done. Then install the drawings to assemble the various components into the complete machine, such as installing the columns, electrical cabinets, and CNC cabinets on the bed, and installing the tool magazine, manipulator, etc. on the columns. When assembling, use the original positioning pins and positioning blocks to restore the installation position to the state before the machine tool was disassembled. After assembly is completed, connect cables, oil pipes, and organs. There are electrical connection diagrams, hydraulic and pneumatic pipeline connection diagrams in the instruction manual. Mark them according to these diagrams and connect them one by one. Pay special attention to cleanliness when connecting, ensure reliable contact and sealing, and check for looseness and damage. When connecting the oil pipe and the air pipe, special attention should be paid to preventing foreign matter from entering the pipeline from the interface to avoid causing failure of the entire hydraulic system.

2. Connection and adjustment of CNC system

The CNC system is the core component of the CNC machining center, and its various connections and parameters should be confirmed and adjusted.

(1) Unpacking inspection of the CNC system. The inspection includes the system body and its supporting feed speed control unit, servo motor, spindle control unit, and spindle motor. Check whether their packaging is intact and whether the actual product matches the order.

(2) External cable connection The external cable connection is the connection between the CNC device and the power lines and feedback lines of the external mdi/crt unit, strong current cabinet, machine tool operation panel, feed servo motor, and spindle motor. The ground wire should use a little sister grounding type, that is, the radiating grounding method to prevent crosstalk. This kind of grounding requires that the signal grounding, strong current grounding and machine tool grounding in the CNC cabinet be connected to a common ground point, and there should be a thick enough protective grounding cable between the CNC cabinet and the strong current cabinet.

(3) Connection of the power cord of the CNC system. The input cable of the CNC cabinet should be connected with the power switch of the CNC cabinet turned off.

(4) Confirmation of various settings. There are many short-circuit set points on the printed circuit board in the CNC system. This setting is completed by the machine tool factory. The user only needs to confirm and record it. The content of setting determination varies with different CNC systems, but generally includes the following three aspects:

①Confirm the settings on the control part printed circuit board. Mainly confirm the settings on the main board, ROM board, connection unit, additional control board and resolver or induction synchronizer control board.

②Confirm the settings on the speed control unit printed circuit board. There are many set points in both the DC speed control unit and the AC speed control unit, which are used to select the type of detection components, loop gain, and various alarms.

③Confirm the settings on the spindle control unit printed circuit board. On both DC and AC spindle control units, there are set points for selecting the spindle motor current limit and spindle speed. However, on the digital AC spindle control unit, digital settings have been used to replace the short-circuit bar settings. At this time, settings and confirmation can only be performed when the power is on.

(5) Confirmation of input power voltage, frequency and phase sequence

mainly include:

① Check and confirm whether the capacity of the transformer meets the energy consumption of the control unit and servo drive system. Leave a certain margin on the total load.

② Check whether the fluctuation range of the power supply is within the allowable range of the CNC system. Some large-scale precision machine tools have very high power requirements. At this time, an AC voltage stabilizer should be added to ensure the smooth and normal operation of the machine tool.

③ For the power supply of the speed control unit using transistor control components, be sure to check the phase sequence. Applying power with an incorrect phase sequence may blow the input fuse of the speed control unit. There are two ways to check the phase sequence: one is to measure with a phase sequence table. When the phase sequence connection is correct, the phase sequence table rotates clockwise; the other method is to use an oscilloscope to measure the waveforms of the two phases. Take a look and determine the sequence of each phase. (6) Check whether the voltage output terminal of the DC regulated power supply is short-circuited to ground.

There are DC stabilized power supply units inside various CNC systems, which can provide DC voltages such as +5, ±15, +24V for the system. Therefore, before powering on, the loads of these power supplies should be checked to see if there is a short circuit to ground. A multimeter can be used to measure and confirm.

(7) Check each output voltage through the CNC cabinet power supply

After turning on the power, first check whether the fans in the CNC cabinet are operating normally, so as to determine whether the power is turned on. Check whether the power supply voltage on each printed circuit board is normal and within the normal fluctuation range. The voltage requirements for the +5V power supply are relatively high, and the fluctuation range is usually required to be within ±5%.

(8) Confirm the settings of each parameter in the CNC system

The purpose of setting system parameters is to enable the machine tool to have the best working performance when the CNC device is connected to the machine tool. Different CNC systems have different parameters. The parameter table that comes with the machine tool is important technical data of the machine tool and should be properly kept. It will play a great role in future machine tool troubleshooting and parameter recovery. Most manufacturers’ products can display the parameters stored in the system memory by pressing the {PARAM} key on the MDI CRT unit.

(9) Confirm the interface between the CNC system and the machine tool

Modern CNC systems generally have self-diagnosis functions. The CRT display can display the interface between the CNC system and the machine tool as well as the internal status of the CNC system. Machine tools with programmable controllers can also display the status of the PLC ladder diagram. Compare the ladder diagram provided by the manufacturer. Manual, you can confirm whether the status of each interface between the CNC system and the machine tool is normal.

3. Power on and try it out

Before powering on for trial use, the machine tool must be lubricated according to the instructions, fill up the lubricating oil tank, pour the specified oil and grease into the lubrication points, clean the hydraulic tank and filter, and fill in the specified hydraulic oil. While power is on, for safety reasons you should be prepared to press the emergency stop button and cut off the power supply at any time. After powering on, first observe whether there is an alarm, and then manually start each component one after another to test whether the operation of each guide rail is normal, whether the spindle is running normally, whether various safety devices work, whether the operating noise of each part of the system is normal, etc. . When checking the hydraulic system, check whether there is stroke oil pressure in the hydraulic pipeline, whether there is leakage in each joint, etc.

After the above inspection is completed, adjust the bed level of the machine tool, and roughly adjust the main geometric accuracy of the machine tool, the relative position of the main moving parts and the host machine, etc. After these tasks are completed, the anchor bolts can be fixed, and the reserved holes can be filled with quick-drying cement. After the cement dries, the next step of commissioning can be carried out. The next step is to further confirm the operation of each component of the machine tool, and check whether the operation instructions given are consistent with the actual operation of the machine tool. If not, check the setting of the oil pipe parameters. You should also check whether the machine tool’s auxiliary devices are available, such as whether the machine tool’s lighting can be lit, whether the cooling protective cover and various protective plates are complete, whether the coolant can be sprayed out normally, etc. Finally, a test of returning to the reference point should be performed to see if the position of returning to the reference point is exactly the same each time.

4. Trial run

After the CNC machining center is installed, the whole machine is required to run automatically for a long period of time under a certain load to comprehensively check the machine tool function and working reliability. You can use the method of running 8 hours a day for 2 to 3 consecutive days or running 32 hours continuously. During the trial run, you can directly use the machine test program used by the machine tool factory during debugging, or you can compile a program yourself.

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