Industrial mother machine-CNC machine tool

Machine tools, known as “industrial mother machines” and “the heart of modern industry”, are the foundation of the manufacturing industry and the key area of high-end breakthroughs in the manufacturing industry, especially for the automotive industry, rail transit, electronic information equipment, shipbuilding, aerospace and other high-end equipment manufacturing fields provide important support.The technical level of high-end CNC machine tools is one of the standards for measuring a country’s core manufacturing capabilities.


History of machine tool development

A machine tool refers to a machine that makes a machine.Machine tools play an irreplaceable and important role in the modernization of the national economy.

Machine tools took shape in the early 15th century. They were originally designed to make clocks and weapons. Thread lathes and gear processing machine tools appeared, as well as hydraulically driven barrel boring machines.The “Heavenly Work” published in the Ming Dynasty of China also contains the structure of a grinder, which rotates the iron circle by stepping on it, and adds sand and water to cut the jade.

The industrial revolution has triggered the production and improvement of various machine tools, including gantry planers, horizontal milling machines, cylindrical grinders, coordinate boring machines and thread grinders.

From the end of the 19th century to the beginning of the 20th century, a single lathe has gradually evolved into milling machines, planers, grinding machines, drilling machines, etc. These main machine tools have been basically shaped, which created conditions for the mechanization and semi-automation of production in the early 20th century.

In the 30 years after 1920, mechanical manufacturing technology entered a period of semi-automation, and hydraulic and electrical components were gradually applied to machine tools and other machinery.

In 1950, the development of machine tools began to enter a period of automation, and in 1951, the first CNC machine tool appeared.


CNC machine tools

CNC machine tools are short for Digital control machine tools (Computer numerical control machine tools), which are automated machine tools equipped with a program control system.The control system can logically process programs with control codes or other symbolic instructions, decode them, represent them in coded numbers, and input them to the CNC device through the information carrier.After calculation and processing, various control signals are sent by the CNC device to control the action of the machine tool, and the parts are automatically processed according to the shape and size required by the drawings.


CNC machine tools mainly contain the following parts:

The main body of the machine tool: The main body of the machine tool is the main component of the machine tool and an important mechanical accessory part. It is the part that is easiest to see intuitively with the naked eye. As the hardware of the machine tool, it also includes the bed and base castings, the spindle and the gearbox, the guide rail and the slide table, lubrication, chip removal and cooling and other parts.


Transmission system: The transmission system is an important “context” of CNC machine tools, which leads the orderly progress of all parts of the machine tool and completes the work mission of the machine tool, including tools, transmission machinery and auxiliary power systems.


Tool part: including protection device, tool magazine and tool changer;


Transmission machinery: it includes two parts: ball screw, linear guide rail and worm;


Auxiliary power system: it includes two parts: hydraulic system and starting system, which is also the power of CNC machine tools.


CNC system: The CNC system can be said to be the soul of the CNC machine tool, and it is also the most emotional part of the entire machine tool. It is the essence of the machine tool to complete various functions and operations.CNC systems are basically divided into two categories:


Drive device: it includes high-speed spindle, torque motor, linear motor, ordinary motor and stepper motor;


Control and detection equipment: including CNC system, programmable controller, feed servo control module, position detection module, etc.


CNC machine tools can better solve the problems of complex, precise, small-batch, and multi-variety parts processing. They are a flexible and high-performance automated machine tool that represents the development direction of modern machine tool control technology and is a typical mechatronics product.

CNC machine tools are one of the 16 major national science and technology projects in our country.


High-end CNC machine tools

High-end CNC machine tools have functions such as high-speed, precision, intelligence, composite, multi-axis linkage, and network communication. Their development symbolizes that the country’s current machine tool manufacturing industry accounts for the advanced stage of the development of the world’s machine tool industry.Multi-axis linkage technology is one of the core technologies of high-end CNC machine tools.Multi-axis linkage refers to the simultaneous movement of each feed axis of the CNC machine tool (including the linear coordinate feed axis and the rotary coordinate feed axis) under the control of the CNC device in accordance with the program instructions.High-end CNC machine tools generally have 3-axis or more linkage control functions, mostly 4-axis linkage or 5-axis linkage.

Internationally, high-end machine tool technologies such as five-axis linkage CNC machine tools are regarded as an important symbol of a country’s industrialization.Five-axis linkage CNC machine tools refer to machine tools specially used to process complex curved surfaces, which have the advantages of wide application range, high work efficiency, improved machining accuracy, and increased tool life.With the rapid development of advanced manufacturing, five-axis linkage CNC machine tools, as an important symbol of the country’s industrialization level, have gained broad prospects for development.

There are many types of five-axis linkage CNC machine tools.According to different styles, five-axis linkage CNC machine tools can be divided into two types: vertical spindle double swing head and horizontal spindle double swing head; according to different structures, five-axis linkage CNC machine tools can be divided into double turntable form, one swing and one turn form, vertical swing head type, vertical workbench type and so on.At present, vertical spindle double pendulum head five-axis linkage CNC machine tools are the mainstream products in the market. In 2021, the global vertical spindle double pendulum head five-axis linkage CNC machine tool revenue will reach US44.41 billion, accounting for nearly 60% of the global CNC machine tool market share.

Five-axis linkage CNC machine tools are widely used in a wide range of fields, including military industry, precision equipment, aerospace, urban rail transit, new energy vehicles, medical and health care, etc.The aerospace field is the largest demand end for five-axis linkage CNC machine tools, accounting for 40.0% of the demand.Five-axis linkage CNC machine tools can cut and process aircraft engine blades, blades, impellers, and structural parts of large, medium and small aircraft, which have an irreplaceable role in the aerospace field.

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