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Five-axis high-speed milling of typical aircraft fuselage parts

The structural characteristics of typical aircraft parts are thin-walled structures, complex shapes, large changes in bevel angle, and mostly hyperboloid shapes, which require precise forming. In order to reduce the weight of the aircraft, increase its maneuverability and increase its payload and range, lightweight design is carried out and new lightweight materials are widely used. In order to improve the strength and working reliability of parts, overall blank parts and overall thin-walled structures are mainly used. Nowadays, aluminum alloys, titanium alloys, high-temperature resistant alloys, high-strength steels, composite materials, etc. are widely used. Thin-walled parts and honeycomb parts with complex structures not only have complex shapes, but also have many holes, cavities, grooves, ribs, etc., and have poor process rigidity.

1. Typical parts of fuselage structural parts

Typical parts of aircraft fuselage structural parts include beams, ribs, ribs, frames, wall panels, joints, slide rails and other parts. Mainly flat parts, slender parts, multi-cavity parts and ultra-thin wall partition frame structural parts. The blanks are plates, forgings and aluminum alloy extruded profiles. The material utilization rate is only about 5%-10%, and the amount of raw materials removed is large. At present, more than 90% of domestic aircraft parts are aluminum alloy parts, with a small amount of stainless steel and titanium alloy steel, and there are more and more overall structural parts. The application of composite materials is the future development direction.

2. Structural characteristics of typical parts of fuselage structural parts

1. The outline size of parts is getting larger and larger. For example, the length of some beam parts has reached 13m.

2. The bevel angle of parts changes greatly, and the walls are ultra-thin. The thinnest part is only about 0.76mm, so the processing technology has poor rigidity.

3. The structure of parts is becoming more and more complex, and many parts adopt overall structures.

4. The requirements for dimensional accuracy and surface quality of parts are getting higher and higher. For example, defects such as burrs that appear after processing of some parts are not allowed to be removed manually.

3. Machining center machine tools for milling typical parts of the fuselage

1. Three-coordinate machining center, such as large gantry vertical machining center;

2. Five-axis linkage machining centers, such as large gantry vertical machining centers, should be equipped with A/B swing angle milling heads or A/C swing angle milling heads;

3. From development considerations, a large-scale gantry-type dual-spindle five-coordinate machining center with a workbench size of 5m × 20m is needed for processing beam parts;

4. Processing aluminum alloy parts requires a high-power high-speed machining center with a power of ≥40kW, a spindle speed of more than 20,000r/min, and a two-coordinate swing angle milling head;

5. Due to the large amount of removal in the cutting of integral aluminum alloy parts, in order to facilitate chip removal, it is best to require a horizontal machining center with a worktable that can be turned 90°;

There are many types of aircraft fuselage structural parts with different shapes, and the process rigidity is poor, requiring a large number of fixtures. In order to reduce costs and shorten the production preparation cycle, various flexible fixtures are needed.

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