Examples of common daily maintenance points for CNC machine tools

The service life and efficiency of CNC machine tools not only depend on the accuracy and performance of the machine tool itself, but also depend to a large extent on its correct use and maintenance. Proper use can prevent abnormal wear and tear of equipment and avoid sudden failures; careful maintenance can keep equipment in good technical condition, delay the aging process, detect and eliminate faults in time to prevent future problems, prevent the occurrence of vicious accidents, and thus ensure safety. run. In other words, the correct operation and careful maintenance of machine tools are important links in implementing equipment management that focuses on prevention.

Various types of CNC machine tools have different characteristics due to their different functions, structures and systems. The content and rules of maintenance also have their own characteristics. The specific requirements should be based on the type, model and actual use of the machine tool, and with reference to the requirements of the machine tool manual, the necessary regular and graded maintenance system should be formulated and established. Here are some common and general daily maintenance points.

(1) Keep the machine tool in good lubrication condition. Regularly check and clean the automatic lubrication system, add or replace grease and oil, so that the screw, guide rail and other moving parts are always in good lubrication condition and reduce the mechanical wear rate.

(2) Regularly inspect the hydraulic and pneumatic systems. Perform regular oil quality inspections on the hydraulic system, check and replace the hydraulic oil, and regularly clean or replace the filters or screens of each lubrication, hydraulic, and pneumatic system. Also perform maintenance on the pneumatic system. Pay attention to draining water frequently.

(3) Regularly check the motor system. Regularly check, clean and replace the brushes and commutator of the DC motor. If the surface of the commutator is dirty, clean it with a white cloth dipped in alcohol; if the surface is rough, use fine metallographic sandpaper to trim it; If the brush length is less than 10mm, replace it.

(4) Conduct over-limit tests on each coordinate system axis in a timely manner. Due to cutting fluid and other reasons, the hardware limit switches are corroded, and the software limits are usually used for protection. Therefore, it is necessary to prevent the limit switch from becoming ineffective after being corroded, and to prevent the workbench from colliding, which may damage the ball screw and affect its mechanical accuracy in severe cases. During the test, just press the limit switch to confirm whether an overtravel alarm occurs, or check whether the corresponding I/O interface signal changes.

(5) Regularly check electrical components. Check whether the contacts of each plug, socket, cable, and relay are in good contact, and check whether each printed circuit board is clean. Check that the insulation resistance of the main transformer and each motor is above 1MΩ. Open the electrical cabinet door as little as possible to keep the inside of the electrical cabinet clean. Regularly clean the electrical cabinet and the cooling fans of related electrical appliances, and replace their air filters. If the circuit board is too dirty or wet, a short circuit may occur. Therefore, if necessary, use vacuuming to clean each circuit board and electrical components.

(6) Maintenance of machine tools when they are not in use for a long time. CNC machine tools should not be stored for a long time. After purchasing CNC machine tools, they should be fully utilized to try to increase the utilization rate of the machine tools, especially in the first year of investment, so that they are prone to accidents. The weak link of the fault is exposed as early as possible, so that the hidden danger of the fault can be eliminated as much as possible within the warranty period. If the CNC machine tool is not used, it will accelerate the deterioration or damage of electronic components due to reasons such as moisture. For example, if the CNC machine tool is not used for a long time, it must be powered on for a long time and the machine tool function test program must be fully run. It is required to power on and test run once every 1 to 3 weeks. Especially in the rainy season when the ambient humidity is high, the number of power ons should be increased and the machine should be run dry for about 1 hour each time to use the heat generated by the machine tool itself to reduce the humidity inside the machine and make the electronics Components are protected from moisture. At the same time, it can also detect in time whether a battery alarm occurs to prevent the loss of system software and parameters.

(7) Replace the memory battery. Generally, the COMOS RAM memory device in the CNC system is equipped with a rechargeable battery maintenance circuit to ensure that the memory content is maintained when the system is not powered on. Under normal circumstances, even if the battery has not expired, it should be replaced once a year to ensure that the system can work properly. The replacement of the battery should be carried out when the CNC device is powered on to prevent the information in the RAM from being lost during replacement.

(8) Maintenance of printed circuit boards Printed circuit boards are prone to failure if they are not used for a long time. Therefore, the purchased spare printed circuit board should be regularly installed on the CNC device and run for a period of time to prevent damage.

(9) The CNC device used to monitor the grid voltage of the CNC device usually allows the grid voltage to move within the range of +10% to -15% of the rated value. If it exceeds this range, the system will not work properly, and may even cause malfunctions in the CNC system. Damage to electronic components. For this reason, the grid voltage used by the CNC device needs to be constantly monitored.

(10) Regularly check machine tool level and mechanical accuracy. There are two methods for correcting mechanical accuracy: soft and hard. The soft method is mainly through system parameter compensation, such as screw backlash compensation, fixed-point compensation for positioning accuracy of each coordinate system, machine tool reference point position correction, etc.; the hard method is generally carried out during machine tool overhaul, such as guide rail repair and scraping. , ball screw nut pre-tightening, adjustment of reverse clearance, etc.

(11) Clean frequently. If the environment around the machine tool is too dirty and there is too much dust, it can affect the normal operation of the machine tool; the circuit board is too dirty, which may cause a short circuit; the oil and water filter, safety filter, etc. are too dirty, which may cause insufficient pressure. , poor heat dissipation, causing failure. Therefore, regular sanitation must be carried out. In order to explain the daily maintenance cycle, inspection parts and requirements more specifically, the daily maintenance of CNC machine tools is shown in the following table for reference.

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