Difficulties in 5-axis machining

The method and machine tool of five-axis machining, as early as the 60s of the 20th century, the foreign aviation industry has begun to adopt it in order to process some large pieces with continuous smooth and complex free-form surfaces, but it has not been widely used in more industries, and it has only developed rapidly in the past 10 years. The main reason is that there are many difficulties in five-axis machining, such as:

1. Programming is complex and difficult.

Because five-axis machining is different from three-axis, in addition to three linear movements, there are two rotational movements involved, and the spatial trajectory of the resulting motion is very complex and abstract, which is generally difficult to imagine and understand. For example, in order to process the required spatial free-form surface, it is often necessary to go through multiple coordinate transformations and complex spatial geometric operations, and at the same time, it is necessary to consider the coordination of the movement of each axis, avoid interference, collision, and interpolation motion should be timely and appropriate, etc., so as to ensure the required machining accuracy and surface quality, and the programming difficulty is even greater.

Second, the requirements for CNC and servo control systems are high.

Since five-axis machining requires five axes to coordinate movement at the same time, it is required that the CNC system must first have at least the function of five-axis linkage control; In addition, because there is the addition of rotary motion in the synthetic motion, this not only increases the workload of interpolation operation, but also because the small error of the rotary motion may be amplified and greatly affects the accuracy of machining, so the numerical control system is required to have a higher operation speed (i.e., the processing time of a shorter single program segment) and accuracy. All of this means that the CNC system must add a processor to the RISC chip for processing (i.e., a CPU structure with multiple high digits). In addition, as mentioned earlier, the mechanical configuration of the five-axis machining machine tool has a tool rotation mode, a workpiece rotation mode and a hybrid of the two, and the numerical control system must also be able to meet the requirements of different configurations. Finally, in order to achieve high-speed and high-precision five-axis machining, the CNC system should also have a look ahead function and a large buffer storage capacity, so that the motion data can be calculated and processed in advance before the program is executed, and multi-stage buffer storage can be carried out, so as to ensure that the error of the tool is still small when running at high speed. All these requirements will undoubtedly increase the complexity of the CNC system structure and the difficulty of development.

The mechanical structure design and manufacture of three-axis and five-axis machine tools are also more complex and difficult than those of three-axis machine tools.

Because the machine tool needs to add two axis of rotation coordinates, it is necessary to use a table that can tilt and rotate or a spindle head component that can rotate and oscillate. For the two additional components, it is required not only to have a compact structure, but also to have a large enough torque and the sensitivity and precision of the movement, which is obviously much more difficult than the design and manufacture of ordinary three-axis machining machine tools.

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