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Development mechanism of composite machine tools

Good work quality, high efficiency and low cost have always been the basic requirements of machine tool users for machine tool products. They are also the main goals and directions of machine tool product research and development. In order to survive and develop in the increasingly fierce market competition, machine tool designers and manufacturers have been making unremitting efforts to this end.

The processing quality of machine tools (including size, shape accuracy and surface quality) mainly depends on the structural stiffness, geometric accuracy, motion accuracy and positioning accuracy of machine tool equipment (including tools and fixtures), and of course environmental conditions (such as temperature, Vibration, etc.) control and guarantee. Therefore, it needs to be solved by developing precision, high-precision and even ultra-precision processing technology and machine tools.

Production efficiency is mainly measured by the production cycle of parts from blank to finished product. The production cycle of parts includes the time required to directly change the properties (performance) and (shape) of the part material (such as cutting and forming, heat treatment, etc.) and non-processing (that is, does not change the properties of the part) time (such as the production process of the part) It consists of two parts: the time required for waiting, transmission, detection, assembly and adjustment, clamping, etc.). In order to reduce the cutting processing time, it is first necessary to increase the cutting speed and feed rate. To this end, people have developed high-speed cutting technology and machine tools. In order to shorten non-processing time, people have to develop more technical measures and equipment, including mechanical automation, CNC flexible machine tools and production lines (manufacturing systems) and are now in the process of The booming CNC compound processing machine tools, etc.

Processing costs include direct costs (such as material consumption, energy consumption, worker wages, etc.) and indirect costs (including depreciation of factory buildings and equipment, safety and environmental protection fees, management fees, etc.). In order to reduce costs, there are many problems involved here, including technical problems and organizational management problems, so more comprehensive research is needed to solve them.

Under normal circumstances, the production of a mechanical part, from blank to finished product, requires the use of certain (one or more) processing methods (such as stamping, welding, cutting, grinding, special processing or turning, milling, Drilling, boring, tooth processing, etc.) multi-process processing (such as turning the outer circle, turning the end face, turning the groove, turning the inner circle, turning the thread, turning the taper surface, etc.). Since different process methods have different processing principles and characteristics, and different processing procedures have different processing purposes and requirements, they each use different processing equipment to achieve them. Therefore, in traditional manufacturing, the manufacturing of a part is often It requires a variety of different processing equipment to complete. This not only increases the number of equipment and the floor space of the production plant, thereby increasing the company’s investment, but also affects the processing because the workpieces need to wait, transfer, inspect, and reposition and clamp between processes and process equipment during the production process. The accuracy also increases a lot of non-processing time. Some experts have analyzed that this part of non-processing time will account for about 70% to 95% of the total part production cycle, thus greatly restricting the improvement of production efficiency.

In order to improve production efficiency and reduce non-processing time, people have long tried to concentrate as many processing procedures with similar or similar processing principles and requirements, and even different processes, on one or a few pieces of equipment. This idea of composite processing of parts after one clamping is its initial manifestation in the combined processing machine tools and multi-tool semi-automatic hexagonal (turret) lathes that appeared in the mechanical automation production process. Because the combined machine tool is based on some common components (such as power head, slide table, base column, rotary table, etc.), it is equipped with components according to the processing requirements of specific parts (including the shape, size, processing location, processing procedures and accuracy of the part) etc.) specially designed fixtures, multi-axis boxes and some cutting tools. It can complete all or most of a specific processed part, such as automobile engine casing, box cover or gearbox body, etc. in one clamping. The processing procedures include plane milling, drilling, boring, reaming, tapping, etc.; and multi-tool semi-automatic turret lathes, according to the process requirements of the workpiece to be processed, after installing the required cutting tools on the turret tool holder , it is also possible to process all or most of the processes of a specific shaft, disk, or kit in one clamping, such as turning inner and outer cylindrical surfaces, end faces, grooves, chamfering, and processing of internal and external threads, etc. Therefore, combination machine tools and multi-tool semi-automatic turret lathes both embody the concept of concentrating processes for composite processing, which greatly reduces non-processing time, thus significantly improving productivity. However, these machine tools belong to the category of rigid automation. When the processing object changes, the equipment must also be replaced or re-configured, which requires a large amount of time and capital investment. Therefore, it is only suitable for medium and large-volume production of single types of parts. , and is not suitable for single-piece and small-batch production of multi-variety parts.

With the emergence of CNC machine tools and the increasing development and performance improvement of CNC technology (including CNC servo systems, functional components and programming, software, etc.), the flexible automation capabilities of CNC machine tools have been greatly enhanced. Coupled with the development of personalized electromechanical products, The market’s demand for multi-variety and small-batch production is increasing, which provides a broad space for the development of complex CNC machine tool processing. In fact, as early as 1958, shortly after the advent of CNC machine tools, with the emergence of the first boring and milling machining center, composite machining has become one of the important technological development directions of CNC machine tools. Today, many types of CNC compound processing machine tools are designed to meet today’s market demand for efficient and low-cost production of multiple varieties of small batch parts. Categories of CNC compound processing machine tools and their representative products.

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