Correct and safe startup and debugging steps for new CNC machine tools

A CNC machine tool is a machine tool with high technical content that integrates electromechanical instruments. After a user purchases a CNC machine tool, debugging is a critical step to ensure that it can be turned on correctly and safely. Whether this step is correct or not determines to a large extent whether the CNC machine tool can achieve normal economic efficiency and its service life. This is a major issue for CNC machine tool manufacturers and user factories. When starting up the CNC machine tool, debugging should be carried out according to the following steps.

1. Appearance inspection before power on

Machine Tool Electrical Inspection Open the machine tool electrical control box and check whether the relays, contactors, fuses, servo motor speed, control unit socket, spindle motor speed control unit socket, etc. are loose. If there is any looseness, return it to normal. If there is a locking mechanism, The connectors must be locked. For machine tools with a transfer box, be sure to check the socket on the transfer box to see if the wiring is loose. If there is a locking mechanism, it must be locked. CNC electrical box inspection Open the CNC electrical box door and check various interface sockets, servo motor feedback line sockets, spindle pulse generator sockets, hand pulse generator sockets, CRT sockets, etc. If there is any looseness, reinsert it and tighten it. The mechanism must be locked. Check the settings of the short-circuit terminals on each printed circuit board according to the instructions. They must comply with the settings set by the machine tool manufacturer. If there are indeed errors, they should be reset. Generally, there is no need to reset, but the user must correct the settings of the short-circuit terminals. Keep original records of status. Wiring quality inspection Check all wiring terminals. Including the terminals for strong and weak current parts that are wired by the machine tool manufacturer during assembly and the terminals for the power cords of each motor. Each terminal must be tightened once with a screwdriver until it cannot be tightened with the screwdriver. Each motor socket must be Tighten. Solenoid valve inspection: All solenoid valves must be pushed several times by hand to prevent malfunction caused by long-term de-energization. If any abnormalities are found, records should be kept for confirmation of repair or replacement after power is turned on. Limit switch inspection: Check whether the movement of all limit switches is flexible and whether the fixation is firm. If any malfunction or loose fixation is found, deal with it immediately. Check the buttons and switches. Check the buttons and switches on the operation panel. Check the wiring of all buttons, switches, and indicator lights on the operation panel. If any errors are found, deal with them immediately. Check the sockets and wiring on the CRT unit. Ground wire inspection: A good ground wire is required. Measure the machine tool ground wire. The ground resistance cannot be greater than 1Ω. Power supply phase sequence check: Use the phase sequence table to check the phase sequence of the input power supply, and confirm that the phase sequence of the input power supply should be absolutely consistent with the power supply phase sequence calibrated everywhere on the machine tool. For equipment with secondary wiring, such as power transformers, etc., the phase sequence of the secondary wiring must be confirmed to be consistent. Make sure the phase sequence is absolutely correct everywhere. At this time, the power supply voltage should be measured and recorded.

2. Turn on the total voltage of the machine tool

Turn on the main power supply of the machine tool, check whether the direction of the CNC electrical box, spindle motor cooling fan, and machine tool electrical box cooling fan is correct, whether the oil mark indications on lubrication, hydraulic pressure, etc., and the machine tool lighting are normal, and whether each fuse is damaged, such as If there is an abnormality, the power should be cut off immediately for maintenance. If there is no abnormality, the operation can be continued. Measure the voltage of each part of the strong current, especially the primary and secondary voltages of the power transformer for CNC and servo units, and keep records. Observe whether there is oil leakage, especially the hydraulic cylinders and solenoid valves used for turret indexing, clamping, spindle shifting, and chuck clamping. If there is oil leakage, power off immediately for repair or replacement.

3. CNC electrical box is powered on

Press the CNC power on button, turn on the CNC power, and observe the CRT display until the normal screen appears. If the ALARM display appears, the fault should be found and eliminated. At this time, the power should be re-energized for inspection. Turn on the CNC power supply and measure the voltages at all levels according to the positions of the test terminals given in the relevant information. If there is any deviation, adjust it to the given value and make a record.

Place the status switch in the appropriate position. For example, the Japanese FANUC system should be placed in the MDI status and select the parameter page. Check the parameters one by one, bit by bit, and these parameters should be consistent with the parameter table that comes with the machine. If inconsistent parameters are found, the meaning of each parameter should be clarified before deciding whether to modify it. For example, the value of backlash compensation may be inconsistent with the parameter table, which can be modified at any time after actual processing. Place the status selection switch in the JOG position, set the jog speed to the lowest gear, perform jog operations in the forward and reverse directions of each coordinate, and at the same time press the overtravel protection switch corresponding to the jog direction with your hand to verify its protective effect. Then, conduct a slow overtravel test to verify the correctness of the installation of the overtravel impact block. Set the status switch to the zero return position to complete the zero return operation. No other operations can be performed until the reference point return action is completed. Therefore, in this case, you should perform this operation first, and then perform the 4th operation. Place the status switch in the JOG position or MDI position, and perform a manual gear change test. After verification, place the spindle speed control switch in the lowest position, conduct a spindle forward and reverse rotation test in each gear, and observe the spindle operation and the correctness of the speed display. , and then gradually increase the speed to the maximum speed to observe the stability of the spindle operation. Carry out a manual guide rail lubrication test to ensure that the guide rails are well lubricated. Gradually change the fast-moving overshoot switch and feed override switch, move the tool holder at will, and observe the correctness of the speed change.

4. MDI test

Measure the actual rotation speed of the spindle. Place the machine tool lock switch in the on position, use manual data input instructions, perform any spindle gear shifting and speed change test, measure the actual rotation speed of the spindle, and observe the spindle speed display value. The adjustment error should be limited to 5%. within. Carry out the tool selection test of the turret or tool holder. The purpose is to check the correctness of the tool holder or forward and reverse rotation and positioning accuracy. Functional test: Depending on the ordering situation, the functions are also different. Each function can be tested according to the specific situation. In order to prevent unexpected situations, it is best to lock the machine tool for testing first, and then release the machine tool for testing. EDIT function test: Set the status selection switch to the EDIT position, and compile a simple program by yourself, including as many functional instructions and auxiliary function instructions as possible. The movement size is limited to the maximum stroke of the machine tool, and the program is added, deleted, and modified at the same time. . In the automatic state test, the machine tool is locked, and the programmed program is used to conduct a dry running test to verify the correctness of the program. Then, the machine tool is released, and the feed override switch, fast overshoot switch, and spindle speed overshoot switch are changed in various ways. Make the machine tool fully operate under various changes of the above switches, and then set each overshoot switch to 100% to make the machine tool fully operate and observe whether the working condition of the whole machine is normal.

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