Basic knowledge of CNC lathe

With the rapid development of scientific skills and social consumption, mechanical products are becoming more and more complex, and the demand for the quantity and consumption rate of mechanical products is getting higher and higher.In industries such as aerospace, military industry, and computing, parts have high precision, complex shapes, small batches, frequent corrections, difficult processing, low consumption effectiveness, high rest intensity, and difficult quality assurance.

The initiative of the machining process process is the most important factor in adapting to the above-mentioned development characteristics with intelligence.In order to deal with the above problems, a dexterous, universal, high-precision and efficient “flexible” active consumer equipment, a CNC machine tool, came into being under this situation.At present, CNC technology has gradually spread, and CNC machine tools have been widely used in industrial consumption, which has become an important direction for the initiative of machine tools.

1. CNC

1) The significance of CNC:

Numerical control is digital control (NUMERICALCONTROL), which is short for digital order control.

The essence of CNC is to take the initiative to master the progress of mechanical installation through the digital information under a specific processing method (the digital quantity that does not change). It has the same nature as the sequence mastery (that is, sequence mastery) carried out through the continuous change of the digital quantity.Because the information is mastered in CNC, and the processing of these short messages is inseparable from the disk computer, the technique of actively mastering through the disk computer is referred to as CNC.The CNC mentioned here refers specifically to the CNC (that is, the CNC of machine tools) used in machine tool processing.In addition, CNC is also widely used in measurement, physical and chemical experiments and analysis, material and information transmission, construction, and scientific governance.

2) Classification of CNC:

The NC installation of late CNC machine tools consists of various logic components and memory components to form random logic circuits. It is a hardware structure with fixed wiring. The hardware realizes the CNC function, which is called hardware CNC. CNC machine tools implemented with this technique are individually called NC machine tools.

COMPUTERNUMERICALCONTROL (COMPUTERNUMERICALCONTROL), REFERRED TO AS CNC.The modern CNC system adopts the CNC system of a microprocessor or a dedicated microcomputer. The system sequence (software) stored in the memory in advance is used to master the logic, realize local or partial CNC functions, and connect with peripheral equipment through the interface. It is called a CNC system. Such machine tools are individually called CNC machine tools.

2. CNC machine tools and CNC machine tools

1) Machine tool CNC

Numerical control of machine tools refers to the preparation of tasks through the processing sequence, and the mastering instructions are recorded on the information medium by digital signal. After processing by the output disk computer, the order, displacement and speed of the various steps of the machine tool are actively mastered. A skill.The object of its mastery is specifically for machine tools and machine tool processing. The machine tools mentioned here do not only refer to metal cutting machine tools (trolley, milling, planing, drilling, grinding, boring and other machine tools).

2) CNC machine tools

CNC machine tools are a new type of mechatronics processing equipment that uses digital information to master the active processing of machine tools according to a given static law.

CNC machine tools are the product of the combination of digital mastery skills and machine tools. Machine tool CNC skills are realized through machine tool processing skills such as CNC gantry milling machines. The crux of using CNC skills lies in learning and using CNC machine tools well.

The CNC rate of machine tools in a country reflects the degree of the machine tool industry and machinery manufacturing industry in this country, and it is also one of the important markers for weighing the scientific and technological progress of a country.It has very serious significance regarding the realization of the initiative of the consumption process, the rapid advancement of scientific and technological progress, and the establishment of the modernization of the country.The prosperous country regards CNC technology as the strategic focus of the development of the machinery industry, and strives to promote and develop CNC machine tools.

3. Use of CNC machine tools

Characteristics of CNC machine tools:

Compared with traditional machine tools, CNC machine tools have the following characteristics.

1) Highly flexible

The processing of parts on CNC machine tools depends on the processing order. It is different from ordinary machine tools. It does not need to be made. Many molds and fixtures are changed, and there is no need to adjust the machine tools from time to time.Therefore, CNC machine tools are practical in places where the processed parts are frequently changed, that is, they are suitable for the consumption of single-piece, small-batch products and the development of new products, thereby prolonging the consumption preparation cycle and saving a small amount of process equipment costs.

2) High machining accuracy

The MACHINING ACCURACY of CNC MACHINE TOOLS CAN individually reach 0.05-0.1MM. CNC machine tools are controlled according to the digital signal situation. FOR every pulse signal output by the CNC installation, the moving parts of the machine tool move one pulse equivalent (individually 0.001MM), AND THE reverse gap of THE machine tool feed transmission chain AND THE even pitch of the screw CAN BE ADJUSTED BY THE CNC installation TO make up for it. THEREFORE, the positioning ACCURACY of CNC machine tools is relatively high.

3) Stable and reliable processing quality

Processing the same batch of parts, on the same machine tool, under the same processing conditions, using the same tools and processing sequence, the tool trajectory is complete and the same, the parts are consistent and the quality is stable.

4) High consumption rate

CNC machine tools can effectively increase the processing time and auxiliary time of parts. The spindle speed of sound and the large-scale feed of CNC machine tools allow the machine to perform powerful cutting with large cutting volumes.CNC machine tools are currently entering a period of high-speed processing. The rapid movement and positioning of moving parts of CNC machine tools and high-speed cutting have greatly improved the consumption rate.In addition, the use of the tool bank in conjunction with the machining center can realize the continuous processing of multiple processes on a single machine tool, increasing the inter-process turnover time of semi-finished products and improving the consumption rate.

5) Improved rest conditions

Before the CNC machine tool is processed, after the adjustment is made, the output sequence is activated, and the machine tool can actively continue processing until the processing is over.All the operator has to do is the output of the order, compilation, loading and unloading of parts, tool preparation, observation of processing conditions, and testing of parts. The intensity of rest is greatly reduced, and the rest of the machine tool operator tends to be intellectual tasks.In addition, the machine tools are individually combined, which are both clean and safe.

6) Use the modernization of consumer governance

The processing of CNC machine tools can accurately predict the processing time afterwards, and the tools and fixtures used can be standardized and modernized to make it easy to standardize processing information. At present, it has been organically combined with computer-assisted design and production (CAD/CAM), which is the basis of modern integrated production techniques.

4. Development of CNC skills

1) High speed

The CNC system adopts more than 32-bit microprocessors, so that the output, decoding, summing, output and other links of the CNC system are realized at high speed, and the separation rate of the CNC system can be improved and the high-speed and high-precision machining of small order segments can be achieved.

The new type of CNC system currently under development adopts a 64—bit central processing unit (CPU), which strengthens the interpolation operation function and the fast feed function, realizes high—speed processing, and realizes the multi-axis mastering function. The number of individual mastering axes is 3-15, up to 24, and the number of simultaneous mastering axes can reach 3-6.

2) Multi-function

The CNC system has a variety of monitoring, detection and compensation functions.Such as the detection of tool wear, the accuracy of the system and the detection of thermal changes, it also has the functions of tool life control, tool length bias, tool radius compensation, tip compensation, pitch compensation, etc.Most modern CNC machine tools adopt CRT display, which can display the trajectory of two-dimensional graphics, and some can also display three-dimensional black static graphics.With the help of CRT, the use of the keyboard can realize the functions of sequence output, compilation, correction, and deletion.The modern CNC system has hardware, software and fault self-diagnosis functions.

3) Intelligence

In the modern CNC system, adaptive mastery techniques have been introduced.Adaptive mastery skills are skills that can regulate the characteristics of the task condition measured during the processing process, and can make the cutting process reach and maintain the best condition.

The development of the intelligence of the modern CNC system is currently important in the following aspects:

①Active detection of workpieces and active centering.

②the tool is tested for damage and the spare tool is actively replaced.

Control of tool life and tool storage status.

④Load monitoring, data governance, and training governance.

⑤Use feedforward to master the function of real-time compensation vector.

⑥The function of making up for the expansion and contraction of the ball bar in real time according to the thermal deformation during processing.

5. Composition of CNC machine tools

Modern disk computer CNC machine tools are composed of sequence, output and output equipment, disk computer CNC installation, servo system, and machine tool body.


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