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Application of machine tool thermal compensation technology in industrial processing

With the continuous development of modern industry, CNC machine tools are more and more widely used in the manufacturing industry.CNC machine tools mainly control the processing process through computer programs, which can achieve high-precision and high-efficiency processing operations.However, during the operation of the machine tool, due to the influence of temperature, the structure of the machine tool will be deformed, which will affect the machining accuracy.Therefore, in order to solve this problem, the thermal compensation technology of CNC machine tools came into being.

The thermal compensation technology of CNC machine tools refers to a technical means of using temperature sensors and other measuring equipment to monitor the temperature of machine tools in real time, and to compensate for errors in the processing process in real time through a computer control system.There are mainly the following commonly used thermal compensation methods for machine tools:

Thermal error compensation method based on empirical model: Based on the historical data of machine tool processing, this method establishes an empirical model to predict the temperature change of the machine tool in the current environment, and automatically adjusts the processing parameters through a computer control system to achieve the purpose of precise processing.

Thermal error compensation method based on neural network: This method learns and trains the input temperature and output error of the machine tool by establishing a neural network model, so as to compensate for the thermal error in the machining process of the machine tool.

Thermal error compensation method based on finite element analysis: This method uses finite element analysis software to model the structure of the machine tool, the deformation of the computer bed under different temperature conditions, and the processing program is adjusted in real time through a computer control system to eliminate the impact of temperature changes on machining accuracy.

Thermal error compensation method based on thermal sensor: This method monitors the temperature change of the machine tool in real time by installing a temperature sensor on the surface or key parts of the machine tool, and adjusts the processing parameters in real time through a computer control system to achieve the purpose of precise processing.

In practical applications, different thermal compensation methods for CNC machine tools have their unique application scenarios, advantages and disadvantages.For example, the thermal error compensation method based on empirical models is relatively simple in terms of data collection and processing, but requires a large amount of historical data for modeling, and cannot consider the thermal error in the new environment.In contrast, the thermal error compensation method based on neural networks can adapt to thermal errors in various environments, but it takes a long time for model training.The thermal error compensation method based on finite element analysis can consider the deformation of the machine tool structure, but it requires a complex modeling process and high-performance computer support.The thermal error compensation law based on the thermal sensor requires the installation of temperature sensors on the surface or key parts of the machine tool, which increases the equipment cost and the difficulty of implementation.

Overall, the thermal compensation technology of CNC machine tools provides an important solution for modern manufacturing.By selecting a suitable thermal compensation method and optimizing it in combination with the actual production environment, the machining accuracy and overall efficiency of the machine tool can be significantly improved.

The thermal compensation technology of CNC machine tools mainly includes the following methods:

Thermal error compensation method based on empirical model: This method establishes a certain mathematical model through the analysis of historical data of machine tool processing.During the processing process, the temperature change of the machine tool is monitored in real time, and the temperature change trend of the machine tool in the environment is predicted based on the empirical model. The computer control system will automatically adjust the processing parameters to eliminate thermal errors, thereby improving the machining accuracy.

Thermal error compensation method based on neural network: This method adopts the method of neural network. By learning and training the input temperature and output error of the machine tool, the relationship between temperature change and machining error is identified, so as to realize the thermal error compensation in the machining process of the machine tool.

Thermal error compensation method based on finite element analysis: This method uses finite element analysis software to model the machine tool, the deformation of the computer bed under different temperature conditions, and the law of processing error with temperature, and the processing program is adjusted in real time through a computer control system to eliminate the impact of temperature changes on machining accuracy.

Thermal error compensation method based on thermal sensor: This method is to install a temperature sensor on the surface or key parts of the machine tool to monitor the temperature change of the machine tool in real time and establish an correlation model with the machining error.At the same time, the computer control system is used to adjust the processing parameters in real time to achieve the purpose of precise processing.

These thermal compensation methods have their own advantages and disadvantages.For example, the thermal error compensation method based on empirical models requires a large amount of historical data as the basis, and cannot consider the thermal error in the new environment; the thermal error compensation method based on neural networks can adapt to the thermal error in various environments, but it takes a long time to train the model; the thermal error compensation method based on finite element analysis can consider the deformation of the machine tool structure, but requires a complex modeling process and high-performance computer support; the thermal error compensation method based on thermal sensors requires the installation of temperature sensors on the surface of the machine tool or key parts, which increases equipment costs and implementation difficulties.Therefore, in practical applications, choices and adjustments need to be made according to specific circumstances.

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